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SELU HIS 102 - Concert of Europe

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Concert of Europe - Napoleon is out of the way, attention turns back to Vienna- All the major discussions and decisions were made by the 5 principles diplomats of the 5 great powersI. Congress of Vienna- Great Britain: Viscount Castlereagho The British representative and ministero Two objectives Wants to ensure the preservation of Britain’s naval dominance Wants to preserve the independence of the low countries (Belgium, Netherlands)- Prussia: Prince Karl Von Hardenburg o Wants territorial compensation; they want Saxony- Russia: Tzar Alexander Io Territorial compensation – they want Polando Believes he is the second coming of christ and he should get whatever he wants- Austria: Foreign minister Prince Klemens von Metternicho Two objectives Wants to maintain control of France – keep a close eye Preserve Austria as a great European power- France: Charles Maurice Talleyrando Two objectives: Wants to make sure France is not hammered or treated to harshly at thepeace conference Wants to restore French influence in European diplomatic politics- Despite individual objectives, they all share a number of things in commono Collectively, all 5 of them are politically conservative They want to turn back the clock and restore things back to the way theywere before the revolutiono They want to maintain peace by pursuing 2 courses of action Reestablish the old traditional balance of power from the 18th century (Want to reincorporate France into the great powers – reconciliation)- They have no interest in punishing France, because they will be bitter – they assume this, because they understand history (Punic wars – romans treated Carthaginians after the first AND second war which led to a 3rd war) Establish spheres of influenceso Want to restore and preserve stability Means preventing anymore revolution - The results? The Vienna Settlement:o A formal peace treaty with France – called the Second Treaty of Franceo Territorial modifications o Undertook significant steps to maintain stability As much as they could, they restored legitimate monarchs who had been in power before the revolution Establish an informal alliance system that will ultimately be called the concert of Europe – each of the 5 great powers promised to cooperate and help each other – put down any disturbance  Great powers are going to reject a couple of things- Great powers reject:o the concept of nationalism reject the aspirations of certain national groups to create their own states (Belgians, Germans, Italians, Croats, Czechs, Slavs, Poles)o reject liberalism - Europe mostly enjoys peace for 100 years, no continental warso American civil waro Saw destruction, loss of land and property- Why so much peace for that long?o France was treated with leniencyo Diplomat of Vienna establishes a diplomatic that allowed for periodic conferences in order to talk about and settle disputes Called the Congress system- In terms of stability, it does not work out very wello 5 powers effort to squash nationalism and liberal political reformso So, 3 more waves of political revolutionII. Revolution: 1820, 18301820- Lasts until 1822 – revolutions break out all over the placeo Ottoman empire, etco Due to the atrocious govt. quality- Most of the revolutions were put down by the great powers who were operating according to the principles they established in Vienna - The revolution that broke out in Greece is the exceptiono Broke out because of nationalism – rose up against the Turks in the name of Greek independenceo All the others were failures, but this one succeeded, by 1832 Greece is independent1830 - Second wave, what becomes clear is that the forces of change are beginning to break througho Nationalism and liberalism are beginning to break through conservatismo 3 big revolutions- First and most important – breaks out in Franceo Breaks out because of liberalismo The king of France is Charlie X o Increasingly repressive – middle class demanded liberal political reformso In July, they forced Charlie X to abdicate o Replaced by Louis Philippeo Driven by demand for reform, inspires all the other revolutions to be driven by nationalism- Revolution in the Netherlandso Belgian revolutionaries rose up against the Dutch in the name of Belgian independence- Poland rose up against the Russians in Warsaw- Great powers cut a deal to regain control – allowed the Belgians to maintain their independence- Poland’s revolution was crushedo Just like 1820, the question of success of failure depends on the great powers and their interests and interventiono They are cooperating according to the concert of EuropeIII. Revolution of 1848 (Lasts until 1849)- 2 sets of causes- Political and economic- 3 Political causeso 1) nationalism – unifications and separations of new states Becoming far more intenseo 2) liberalism – middle classes still want constitutions and voting and representative assemblieso 3) The growing political influence of the proletariat – very much like the middle class and they want reform However, the workers also made what was considered to be very radical demands They want republics, no monarchs Universal manhood suffrage Remind people of the craziness of the earlier revolutions- 3 Economic causeso 1) Decline in economic growth – stagnationo 2) A food shortage – poor harvest, higher prices, Irish potato famineo 3) High unemployment – outbreak of revolution- The revolutions did break out in Paris (ofc)o Within two weeks, they are all over the place o Some of them are b/c of nationalism and a lot are b/c of liberalismo And in spite of the differences and variations, they follow a pattern of 3 major stages/patterns of this revolutiono 1) Takes place in the spring and summer of 1848 - Springtime of peoples The people who dominate are 2 groups The middle class – moderates and radicals  Also, by the working classeso 2) In the summer until the late fall – Conservative reaction Domination in the revolution begins to shift away from the middle class and back to the conservatives Primary reason is because of divisions emerging between middle class moderates and middle-class radicals  Different between states, but mostly followed France’s lead- Abolish the monarchy – gone for good- Establish a new republican govt. (2nd republic)- Wrote a new constitution  Begin to regain control because:- A major insurrection because nothing had

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