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UW-Madison BIOLOGY 151 - Disc Homework Week of 21.03.29

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Name:______________________________________ Section:__________________________________151-3 Intro Bio Discussion Homework Week of March 29, 2021Questions 1-8 will be graded for completion1. Purebred lines of fruit flies with wild type (tan) body color and stubby bristles are mated to flies with ebony bodies and normal bristles. The resulting F1 offspring all have a normal wild-type body color and stubby bristles. The F1 flies are crossed with flies recessive for both traits (i.e., ebony bodies and normal bristles).a) Assume you found the following results among the offspring. How could you explain these results?PhenotypeWild type body, Stubby bristles:Ebony body, Stubby bristles:Wild Type body, Normal bristles:Ebony body, Normal bristles:4305565450 Total = 1,000b) From the information above, what can you explain (calculate?), specifically, about where these genes are located within this organism’s chromosomes?2. A cross of a female fruit fly homozygous recessive for two linked alleles (genotype = pb/pb) with a heterozygous male (genotype = p+b+/pb) yielded the following genotypes in the F1:269 p+b+/pb 32 pb+/pb 28 p+b/pb271 pb/pb(Assume wild-type alleles are dominant.)What is the frequency of cross over between the genes p and b? How far apart are the genes p and b?1Name:______________________________________ Section:__________________________________3. In rabbits, black (B) is dominant to brown (b), while straight fur (S) is dominant to curly (s). The genescontrolling these traits are linked. Many rabbits that are heterozygous (created by crossing two pure-breeding lines – black/straight & brown/curly) for both traits and express black / straight, were crossed to many rabbits that express brown / curly (double-recessive for both characters) and yielded the following total number of offspring:31 brown / curly35 black / straight16 brown / straight19 black / curlyDetermine the arrangement of alleles in the heterozygous and homozygous parents and map the distance between the two genes:4-5 Based on the information provided in each statement below describe as much as possible about the genetics involved (e.g., are the genes/alleles involved autosomal or sex-linked, dominant, recessive, codominant, or incompletely dominant, and/or linked?)4. When mice with black fur are mated with mice with white fur all of their offspring have grey fur. 5. The human ABO blood types are determined based on the presence or absence of different types of carbohydrate molecules on the surface of the red blood cells. The iA allele and iB allele produce differenttypes of carbohydrate. The i allele produces no carbohydrate. 6. In cats there is a single gene whose protein product is required for both normal hearing and coat color. What do we call single genes that affect more than one phenotype?7. At least two genes are involved in determining human hair color. The first set of alleles determine whether your hair pigment is brown (dominant) or blond (recessive).The second set of alleles either produce red hair (recessive) which supersedes the brown and blonde alleles, or does not produce red hair (dominant), which allows the brown or blond pigmentation to be expressed. This type of genetic determination is known as:8. It is known that a certain non-lethal genetic disorder is encoded in the mitochondrial genome, rather than the nucleus. Given this, how would such disorders be transmitted from parent to offspring? 2Name:______________________________________ Section:__________________________________Questions 19-14 will NOT be graded 9. What are the advantages of multicellularity? 10. How are cells in multicellular organisms connected to one another? How do molecules pass from onecell in an organism to another? Address the specific connections between fungal cells, plant cells, and animal cells in your answer.11. Define the following vocabulary terms that relate to signal transduction pathways: Signal Receptor Ligand Phosphorylation Protein Kinase Amplification12. Signal transduction pathways can greatly amplify the cell’s response to a signal; the more steps in the pathway, the greater the amplification of the signal. Explain how this amplification can occur. 3Name:______________________________________ Section:__________________________________13. A real biological example: the adrenaline (aka epinephrine) response at a cellular level. When a molecule of epinephrine binds to a cell surface receptor, it induces a pathway in which glycogen (stored form of glucose) is converted to glucose so that your cells have energy to respond (fight or flight reaction). The pathway is shown below. (See animation)a) What is the signal? What is the cellular response?b) In the above diagram, where is there a phosphorylation cascade?c) If the receptor is mutated such that it is always activating a G protein, whether or not epinephrine is present, what would the result be?14. The signal transduction pathway components that Dr. Blair described in lecture are: - simple steroid hormone transduction (global)- the G-protein system (local)- phosphorylation cascades with protein kinases (amplification) and- second messengers (cAMP)4Name:______________________________________ Section:__________________________________Draw and/or explain how each of these processes

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