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TAMU ECEN 214 - Lab 4: Operational Amplifier

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ECEN 214 – Electrical Circuit Theory Labs Spring 2021 – Section 50x POSTLAB REPORT Lab 4: Operational Amplifier Application: Electronic Security System Design: Part 1 of 2 Submitted by: In-Lab Attendee: Daniel Link | UIN: 427005480 Jacob Maddux | UIN: 629009073 Date Performed: March 16, 2021 Time Performed: 8am - 9.30amObjective: The purpose of this lab is to help the students better understand the different ways in which op amps can be implemented within a circuit for various needs. For this particular lab, the benefits of using an op amp for electronic security system purposes will be explored. This lab will also show new ways in which voltage and current can be affected within a circuit when certain varying electronic elements and factors are introduced. Procedure: Task 1: For task 1, resistors with different resistance values were used to create our sample space for the emitter and detector diode values pertaining to their resistance, voltage, and current. The power was supplied using the AD2’s waveform generator which powered the diodes. Then a multimeter was used to measure the circuit’s values. First, the circuit for the emitter was constructed and tested using various resistance values as listed in table 1. Then same process was used to find the values for the detector diode which can be found in table 2. Both tables were used to graph respective plots illustrating the individual diodes’ current change regarding the different resistance values used. Furthermore, the emitter and detector were both placed at different distances from each other to show how distance effected the current and voltage of the system. Finally, to better understanding on how current and voltage can be affected, the space between the emitter and detector was obstructed to see if there was any change in the current and voltage values. Task 2: For this task, an inverting and non-inverting amplifier was configured for the detector diode for the purpose of producing an amplified output. Using varying resistances and input voltages, we measured the output voltages.Task 3: For the last task, we introduced a comparator in tandem with the inverting amplifier from task 2. Once the input voltages were adjusted to match the output voltages from task 2 could begin gathering the output voltage data for task 3. All input voltages were from 0V to 5V. Results: Task 1 results: Table 1: the resistance, voltage, and current values for the emitter diode. RE VE IE 100 Ω 1.295 V 26.711 mA 500 Ω 3.805 V 7.692 mA 1000 Ω 3.818 V 3.799 mA 2000 Ω 3.862 V 2.018 mA 3300 Ω 3.879 V 1.181 mA 5100 Ω 3.896 V 0.783 mA Plot 1: a plot illustrating the progression of the current produced by the emitter diode as the resistance value was increased.Table 2: values for resistance, voltage across the detector, and current across the detector diode. RD VD ID 100 Ω 2.412 V 23.101 mA 500 Ω 4.523 V 9.105 mA 1000 Ω 4.863 V 4.822 mA 2000 Ω 4.882 V 2.489 mA 3300 Ω 4.926 V 1.452 mA 5100 Ω 4.942 V 0.959 mA Plot 2: A plot showing the progression of the detector current as the resistance values were increased within the detector diode.Task 2 results: Least distance measured: 2.8 cm Greatest distance measured: 41.56 cm VD at greatest distance (unobstructed): 0.692 V VD at greatest distance (obstructed): 0.034 V VD at least distance (unobstructed): 4.942 V VD at least distance (obstructed): 0.867 V The best resistance value for voltage output for RE was 100 ohms The best resistance value for voltage output for RD was 5100ohms With Op-Amp: Table 3: The resulting measured data after the op-amplifier was implemented in the circuit. RD VD ID 100 Ω 1.092 V 10.92 mA 500 Ω 2.803 V 5.606 mA 1000 Ω 3.311 V 3.311 mA 2000 Ω 3.492 V 1.746 mA 3300 Ω 3.578 V 1.084 mA 5100 Ω 3.623 V 0.71 mAPlot 3: plot demonstrating the relation between the current and resistance after the op-amplifier was implemented. Plot 4: plot showing the relationship between the output voltage of the detector after the op-amplifier had been implemented.Discussion: This lab had several steps that required considerable planning and consideration, but overall, it was straight forward. The experiment might have been easier to have accomplished if a 9V battery were used instead of the AD2’s waveform generator. It was interesting to see how the different resistors effected both the emitter diode and the detector diode in different ways. Witnessing the effects helped in conceptualizing the innerworkings of the circuit. Conclusion: From the lab, the students can better grasp the uses and effects an op-amp can have when used within a circuit. Also, simply learning to construct the emitter and detector diodes was helpful in better understanding how resistors play a role within circuits. An extraordinary amount of uses for the op-amp can be extrapolated from this experiment. Whether it is garage door openers, motion-sensing lights, laser detection systems, etc., there seems to be endless possibilities for amplifiers within the technology

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