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NCSU HI 254 - Lecture Notes

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Lecture 1The Changing US Population from 1900-2000- The US population grew 330% from 1900 to 2019 (76 million - 365 million)- Most populous states in 1890: New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Missouri (Midwest,Northeast)- Called the Rust Belt- Still Indian Wars in the West, many states not even states yet (New Mexico,Arizona, Idaho, etc.)- Most populous states in 2000: California, Texas, Florida, Illinois, New York- The population became more diverse (8%-37%) from 1900-2000- 1900: 14% of the population was foreign-born, now only 10%- Life became easier, changes in technology- Telephone- Changes in medicine -> Life expectancy went way up, infant mortality went waydown in the period from 1900-2000- Growth of the economy -> Homeownership almost doubled, fluctuates (pandemic,recession) but still growth- More educated population, the vast majority today graduate high school, many graduatecolleges- The steep decline in family farms- National Debt has risen from 10% of GDP to 100% of GDP- Changing gender roles in society, access to education and moneyChicago World’s Fair 1893- 27 million people: ⅓ of the US population went to the fair, but why?- 1) The “White City”, 630 acres, fancy architecture, World Tour, all major countrieshad buildings- 2) Gee Whiz! Wow! - Edison building, electricity, astounding to people from ruralareas, cameras, liberty bell made of oranges- 3) The Midway, first ferris wheel- Demonstrated the US was a world power, ready to step up and join the major europeannations, but also showed it saw itself as a white nationThe Frontier- America was different because it had the frontier and required people to be independent,without it they were just the same as Europe, not distinctive- Turner’s Frontier Thesis showed importance of US Frontier to the identity of the countryLecture 2One of the greatest industrial expansions- Increase in imports and exports- High protective tariffs- By 1900 the United States was the world's largest producer of raw materials- Lots of poor and struggling americans during this boomWhy grow?- The US had natural resources, years of preparation (building railroads connectingcoasts & major cities,) expansion through treaties and war with european powers/ nativeamericans- People can now sell nationally and internationally if they could get to a port- New national market with the whole continent- New mail orders and catalogs as a form of advertising- Scientific boom- Breakthrough in communication with the telegraph and Alexander Graham Bell’stelephone- Undersea cables to send telegraphs & hub in london- Some hated undersea cables because they lost autonomy- Breakthrough in transportation - trains & airplanes- Icecream cones, coke, lightbulbs… minor and major inventions- Entrepreneurs of the day - admirable like JP morgan helping people out of debt orcorrupt robber barons(exploited workers, used bribery, eliminated competition)- Andrew Carnegire - built his wealth through steel in pittsburg- The workers made the boom- Children worked on farms & assembly lines- Women also worked in factories because they were paid lower wages- Government policies - Laissez faire- Meaning the government should not interfere with the market forces- “The invisible hand” - a self correcting economy of capitalism- Caused smaller businesses to struggle & bigger businesses to thrive due to lackof regulation - monopolies- No protection for the workers or the environment- Subsidized railroads- Strikes… used govt to break strikes- Industrialization lead to urbanization- Urbanization caused people to move to cities for work & live/ work in horribleconditions- Prices began to fluctuate which hurt small farmers - they were then very isolated- Populism: farmers took matters into their own hands- Grange movement - fun hats :) then they realized that they could buy machinery to helpeachother out & share… turns out that doesn't really work… They wanted to warnAmericans of the effects of industrialization but it didn't go well.- Farmers’ Alliances - extended granger ideals & tried to persuade non farmer to talk topoliticians & vote to save family farms- The populist party - farmers that sought political power w/ a convention in Nebraska in1892 … cheaper loans, direct election of senators, cheaper transportation, income taxLecture 3The Promise of the Civil War - 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments affirmed right of black men tocitizenship, including voting- Reparations: enslaved people had never been paid for their labor, should theirdescendants be paid?- Concept of reparations comes from Garrison Frazier, a minister from Granville NC, alongwith a larger group of black ministers.- Union general Sherman ordered all freedmen to be given 40 acres and a mule,overturned by President Johnson after Lincoln’s assassination in 18651862: Homestead Act - any adult citizen could claim 160 acres on the frontier and if they farmedit for five years, they would own it - but, in 1862, black men were not eligible for citizenshipFailure of Restoration- Johnson overturns the 40 acres and a mule idea, leaves the south without support- African Americans lost the right to vote in the South by 1900- The numbers of African Americans serving in congress declined rapidly- African Americans were disenfranchised through lynching, intimidation, and education,justified in the local news, supported by “upstanding citizens”Obstacles to Voting1) Poll Tax - tax to receive a ballot, given out selectively2) Literacy Test - selectively given, discriminatory3) Grandfather Clause - You can only vote if your grandfather did, clearly no AfricanAmericans’s grandfather had because it had been during slaveryWhy did this disenfranchisement occur?1) Federal Government reappointed experienced old Southern Leaders2) Federal power over states was weak, states rights flourished3) North politicians colluded because of racism in the Northern States4) Supreme Court very conservative1896: Plessy v. Ferguson declared racial segregation constitutionsal, led to the rise of “JimCrow” laws until the 1960sBooker T. Washington- Born a slave- Believed that African Americans needed to be patient and cooperate with whites- Founded the Tuskegee Institute in 1881, thought blacks should learn manual skills andprove their value economically- Atlanta Compromise Speech in 1895, focused on tolerating short-term inequality as ameans to achieve long-term economic betterment and freedomsW.E.B. Du Bois- PhD, first African

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