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W9-2 Protein Syn. and Translation

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Worksheet 9-2: protein synthesis 2 & 3 due:Sun., March 21Fill out this worksheet after you watch the recorded lectures on Translation and on the Genetic Code. Save the worksheet on your computer for later reference. Then go to the Canvas quiz/survey and enter your answers there for homework points.A. Panopto Lecture Protein Synthesis Part 2: translation1. Describe the steps of translation. What structures are required? How do they interact to make a polypeptide?- First, the ribosome binds to the bases, then tRNA brings the correct amino acids to the ribosome. Amino acids, tRNA, anti-codons and codons are all required. Depending on its anti-codon tRNA carries one type of amino acid and then it binds complimentarily to the ribosome.2. What is the role of the tRNA molecules?- The tRNA molecules bring the correct amino acids to the ribosome for translation.3. If a particular tRNA molecule has an anticodon GGA, what codon would be complementary to it?- CCU4. Why is this stage of protein synthesis called ‘translation?’ What is being translated? What is it being translated into?- The sequence of bases of mRNA are being translated into tRNA amino acids.B. Panopto Lecture Protein Synthesis Part 3: the genetic code1. Explain what the genetic code is. Name at least one misconception about the genetic code.- The genetic code are the instructions in a gene that tell the cell how to make a specific protein. This refers to the four bases of DNA, adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G). and thymine (T).2. Looking at the table of the genetic code in the video, which of the three bases in each codon is the 'least significant.' In other words, which one could change and have the least likelihood of changing the resulting amino acid? Or is there no difference among the three bases?- From looking at the genetic code, I think that the third base is the least important because even if you were to change the last base, it usually remains the same amino acid. 3. Thinking about special codons: Which is the first amino acid of all polypeptides that leave a ribosome after translation. Why?- Stop codons beginning with uracil cause ribosomes to release mRNA.4. Along the same lines as #3: Can you predict which one is the last one? Why or why not?- No because it differs between guanine and adenosine. 5. Which thought, or idea is described by the so-called central dogma of molecular biology? What does it mean?- Central dogma describes the idea of the flow of information during protein synthesis. It means an ideology that cannot be questioned. 6. What is the function of transcription? Answer: to…make an RNA copy of a gene’s DNA sequence. What is the function of translation? Answer: to…translate a sequence of mRNA to a polypeptide. What is the function of protein synthesis? Answer: to…make proteins.7. Think about the fact that your body contains about 100,000 different proteins, all of which can be encoded bysimply rearranging 4 letters (i.e. bases) of DNA. Does this amaze you, at least a little bit?- This concept both amazes me and scares me because I could be completely different with one small change in a base of my


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