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OU HES 2913 - HES 2913 Exam 1 Study guide

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HES 2913 Exam 1 Study guideIntro to 2913 sp21What is the health promotion definition of wellness?Health: A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of diseaseor infirmity. –Recently added: the ability to lead a "socially and economically productive life."Wellness: assessing the status of, and balance between, each of the dimensions that signify optimal health–Balancing the 6 SPICES of Wellness - Spiritual: capacity for love, compassion, forgiveness, joy, fulfillment, and sense of purpose - Emotional: self-esteem, being able to share feelings with others, self-acceptance - Cultural: - Social- Physical: eating well, exercising, avoiding harmful habits - Intellectual: openness to new ideas, capacity to question, motivation to master new skillsWhat is the difference between health and wellness?Components of health can be quantified at a specific point in time–Blood pressure–Depression scale results•Wellness is an active process that requires participation in behaviors that enhance health–Running to improve blood pressure and mood state•Health is static; Wellness is dynamicWhat are the 6 SPICES of Wellness? Be prepared to discuss behaviors (actions you can perform) that enhance/improve each SPICE and one single behavior that enhances/improves multiple SPICES simultaneouslySocial wellness: Using effective and respectful communication skills•Showing a willingness to give and accept social support•Displaying acceptance and respect for others:–Cultures–Lifestyles–Beliefs- Being able to cultivate and maintain healthy relationships Physical wellness: - Regular participation in disease prevention behaviors - Physical activity- Well balanced diet- Stress management - Regular medical check ups - Having a responsible relationship with alcohol- Avoiding tobacco and drug usage - Avoiding risky behaviors such as sex and reckless driving Intellectual wellness: - Developing the ability to:- –comprehend, synthesize and apply information- –embrace new knowledge and skills- –implement effective problem-solving skills- –explore creativityCultural wellness:Respecting your cultural norms•Learning about and honoring your heritage–Language –Traditions–Beliefs–AncestorsEmotional wellness: Displaying an honest recognition and acceptance of a full range of emotions in yourself and others•Possessing the ability to appropriately express emotions•Practicing positive stress management skills–The ability to change the way you view and respond to stressors Spiritual wellness: Believing in a unifying force (e.g., creator, higher power)•Upholding a sense of community with all peoples•Showing respect for the Earth and all its creations, both large and small: we are all relatedStress sp21What is resiliency and how does a resilient personality impact the way a person handles stress?Resiliency: a dynamic process that individuals exhibit positive behavioral adaptation when they encounter significant adversity or trauma ◼Resilient Personality: also called a hardy personality. These people◼Commitment to their values and life purpose (self, career, family, friends, etc.)◼typically have an internal locus of control (a feeling of control over the occurrences in their lives.)◼Views stressors as challenges to be met◼young people taught resiliency, hope, and optimism, are less susceptible to depression and lead more productive lives.What does the acronym GAS stand for? What happens during the resistance stage of the GAS? What are the physiologic adaptations to the exhaustion stage?GAS: the general adaptation syndrome Hans Selye’s theory of stress and disease that states there are 3 distinctive physiological phases in reaction to chronic stress:◼Alarm◼Resistance◼ExhaustionAlarm-the fight-or-flight reaction. This stage mobilizes body functions to cope with a threat. The body is more vulnerable to disease or injuryResistance-when attempting to recover, the body resists a complete return to homeostasis and becomes more resistant to injury and disease in the face of continued exposure to stress. This results in the development of a new, level of homeostasis. This is a NEGATIVE thing.Exhaustion-prolonged resistance results in a depletion of physiological resources, leaving the body vulnerable to organ dysfunction and disease. This can be life-threatening if this stage is extended. GAS is believed to be the cause of disease over time. Physiologic adaptations to exhaustion: Enlargement of the adrenal cortex◼Atrophy of lymphatic glands◼Significant decrease in white blood cell count◼Chronically elevated stress hormones◼contributes to systemic inflammation negatively impacting many physiologic functions vital tohealth◼Researchers have found that chronic inflammation is a key trigger for heart disease, central obesity, diabetes and digestive conditions.How does the exhaustion stage impact a person’s risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease?Diabetes: sustained levels of cortisol constantly mobilizing glucose ◼increase insulin production even when unneeded. This exhausts the pancreas and leads to insulin resistance, or pre-diabetes◼Worsens inflammation ◼Encourages central obesity◼Insulin resistance disrupts metabolic hormones that regulate weight leading to obesityHormones responsible for communicating current weight status and fat reserves to the brain are disrupted. This leads to: ◼a decrease in the body’s metabolic rate at rest◼an increase in fat stores even when unneeded◼A decrease in voluntary physical activity◼We choose comfort rather than more stimulation Cardiovascular disease: ◼A chronic rise in blood pressure during the stress response can lead to hardening of the arteries and hypertension ◼chronic systemic inflammation of arterial tissue increases the risk for atherosclerosis, a major component of cardiovascular disease.How does the exhaustion stage impact immune function? What health problems are linked to impaired immune function?◼Psychoneuroimmunology-the study of the interactions among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems◼The underlying premise is that stress, through the actions of the nervous and endocrine systems, impairs immune function and impacts health◼Increased cortisol levels have been linked to a decrease in the number of lymphocytes◼Neuropeptides appear to translate stressful emotions into biochemical messengers that effect immunefunction◼emotional


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