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Cole chapter 1 42. ______ are actions which violate laws defining those socially harmful behaviors subject to the government’s power to impose punishments. a. Crimes b. Mores c. Morals d. Misdemeanors e. Civil infractions43. Ensuring that the defendant receives a fair trial would satisfy which goal of criminal justice? a. Arbitration b. Civility c. Doing justice d. Controlling crime e. Preventing crime44. According to Cole and Smith, the goal of criminal justice that concerns the processes of arresting, prosecuting, convicting, and punishing those who disobey the law is referred to as: a. controlling crime b. doing justice c. arbitrating crime d. preventing crime e. developing legal parameters45. In the American system of federalism, which level of government is solely responsible for the administration of criminal justice?a. City governments b. City and county partnerships c. State governments d. Federal government e. No single level of government is solely responsible46. What specific powers does the U.S. Constitution give to a national police force? a. The Constitution allows the military to serve as a national police force. b. The Constitution gives all national police powers to the FBI. c. The Constitution does not allow for a national police force with broad powers. d. The Constitution gives the national police force power that is subordinate to the state governments. e. The Constitution restricts the federal government from participating in criminal justice activities.47. Which of the following is a criminal activity that the federal government does not have the power to regulate? a. Terrorism b. Internet-based child pornography c. Interstate gang-related crimes d. Banking-related crimes e. Speeding on Interstate highways48. The FBI is a part of which federal department? a. Defense b. Homeland Security c. Commerced. Justice e. Interior49. What federal enforcement agency was created as a direct result of the World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks in 2001? a. Immigration and Naturalization Service b. Department of Homeland Security c. Federal Aviation Administration d. Federal Emergency Management Agency e. U.S. Border Patrol50. The Constitution creates two separate justice systems in the United States. a. Local and county. b. County and state. c. State and federal. d. Federal and international. e. Local and federal.51. The U.S. Constitution provided which level of government with broad national police powers? a. The federal government b. State governments c. Both state and local governments d. The International Police or Interpol e. None of these level of government have broad police powers52. The components of criminal justice are best described as a/an: a. socialized entity. b. system. c. isolated process. d. integrated process. e. bifurcation.53. A key concept in the criminal justice process, involving the mutual transfer of resources among individual actors, is known as a/an: a. exchange. b. referral. c. system. d. discretion. e. disparity.54. Which of the following terms refers to the authority to make decisions without reference to specific rules or facts, relying on one's own judgment? a. Exchange b. Due process c. System d. Discretion e. Disparity55. What proportion of criminal justice employees in the United States work at the federal level? a. Less than 1 percent b. 10 percentc. One-third d. Two-thirds e. Over 90 percent56. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the criminal justice system? a. Discretion b. Resource dependence c. Filtering d. Sequential tasks e. Independence of actors57. Which of the following is an established argument in favor of discretion in the criminal justice system? a. Some state constitutions require discretion. b. Discretion is noncontroversial. c. Discretion is almost always effective. d. It is impossible for any law to be fairly enforced. e. Discretion is needed because the system lacks the resources to treat every case the same way.58. Which of the following is an appropriate duty and use of police resources? a. Educating the public about crime b. Preventing crime c. Helping give emergency medical assistance d. Helping people who have been locked out of their homes e. All of the above are appropriate duties and uses of police resources59. Which of the following ultimately happens to most defendants whose charges are not dropped? a. They go to trial. b. They plead guilty. c. They are found innocent. d. They are found not guilty by reason of insanity. e. They are acquitted.60. The criminal justice agency on the “front line” in controlling crime is/are: a. citizens. b. police. c. courts. d. corrections. e. parole officers.61. The number of employees that work in state and local criminal justice agencies is: a. under 50,000 b. approximately 100,000 c. approximately 500,000 d. over one million e. fluctuates too much to get an accurate count62. Which of the following is a major duty of the police? a. Keeping the peace b. Apprehending violators and combating crime c. Preventing crime d. Providing social servicese. All of the above are major duties of the police63. Federalism in the United States has created a: a. single court system b. streamlined court system c. centralized criminal justice system d. decentralized criminal justice system e. synthetic court system64. Which of the following is an example of the police providing social services? a. Intervening in violent domestic disputes b. Arresting persons dangerous to the community c. Checking warrants in traffic stops d. Providing first aid to a car accident victim e. All of the above are examples of police providing social services65. The determination of whether or not a defendant is guilty is known as: a. adjudication. b. indictment. c. booking. d. information. e. arraignment.66. The primary duty of the courts is: a. statutory compliance.b. oversight of police actions. c. adjudication. d. interpretation of constitutional mandates. e. modification of unfair laws.67. When a person is physically taken into custody, it is known as a(n): a. warrant signing. b. arrest. c. indictment. d. information. e. booking.68. Which of the following is not a process that takes place at the initial appearance? a. Miranda warnings

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NOVA ADJ 100 - adj 100 final

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