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IPFW PSY-B 110 - CHAPTER 1: History and Methods

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CHAPTER 1: History and MethodsPsychology - the scientific study of behavior and mental processesBrief history of psychology - how psychology developed from its origins to where it is todayThemes - common threads within this course and the discipline of psychology, connect and unify its numerous and varied topicsParadigms - a set of beliefs or assumptions that is shared by a group, a way of thinking about doing scienceResearch methods - ways of doing scienceStatistics - mathematical tools that express research findings and allow us to make inferencesScientific ways of studying based on systematic observation; goals are to describe, explain, predict, and changeBehavior - an observable action emitted by an organismMental processes - thoughts, feelings, and beliefsStructuralism - early school of thought in psychology, focused on breaking experience down intoits smallest elements or structuresIntrospection - research method used in structuralism, revealed how the body's sensations could become the mind's perceptionsFunctionalism - early school of thought in psychology, focused on how the mind helps us adapt to our environmentPsychoanalytic psychology - model based on premise that the unconscious mind is the most powerful influence on personality and psychological functioningBehaviorism - movement in psychology which began in the early 1900s, based on premise that only behaviors that are directly observable can be studied scientificallyHumanism - movement in psychology which began in the 1920s, focused on the uniqueness of individuals and their innate potential for growth Positive psychology - movement in psychology which began in the late 1990s, scientifically studies psychological wellness, human strengths, and life-enhancing behaviors Cognitive science - approach to psychology which began in the mid-1900s, focuses on the activenature of human beings in the construction of their own experiences and thought processesBehavioral neuroscience - the study of brain-behavior relationshipsGoals of psychology - a central theme of psychology - to describe, explain, predict, and change behaviorDescribe - part of Theme 1: a goal of psychology - to convey the characteristics of something using words, after careful and systematic observation - answers the "what" questionExplain - part of Theme 1: a goal of psychology - to state what we believe to be the mechanismsand/or the causes of behavior and mental processes - answers the "how" and "why" questionsPredict - part of Theme 1: a goal of psychology - to state what one thinks will happen in the future - answers the "when" and "what if" questionsChange - part of Theme 1: a goal of psychology - to control or alter the course of behaviorEmpiricism - systematic observation, the hallmark of science in general; in psychology - the systematic observation of behavior and mental processesB = f (P + E + PE) - behavior is best understood as a function of things about the person (inside), things about the environment (outside), and the complex interaction of person and environmentSocio-historical context - a central theme of psychology - history is a context for understanding how psychology has developed as a discipline over time, and how its points of view reflect historical contextSocio-cultural context - a central theme of psychology - culture is a bridge between person and environment that influences how psychological concepts are understood and appliedConstructivism - a scientific paradigm based on a belief that knowledge about anything is built (constructed) as we go, and is a part of our subjective experienceLogical positivism - a scientific paradigm based on a belief that behavioral phenomena exist independent of the observer and can be studied objectivelyScientific method - a method used by logical positivists to discover the truth about observable phenomena - process starts with theory, forms hypotheses, collects data, draws conclusions based on statistical findings, and shares resultsDescriptive methods - research methods that focus on making observations in order to answer the "what" questionNaturalistic observation - descriptive research method that places the researcher/observer in the natural habitat of the observed, which provides an opportunity to witness and record the behavior directly, without interacting with the observedCase study - descriptive research method whereby the researcher gathers a great deal of information about one person through a combination of techniques, including interview, history, and review of recordsSurvey - descriptive research methods wherein the researcher gathers a lot of information about a lot of people by asking them to respond to questions about their behavioral practices, beliefs, or opinionscorrelational methods - research methods that allow researchers to investigate how two variables are relatedpositive correlation - exists when two variables are changing together in the same directionnegative correlation - exists when two variables are changing together in opposite directionszero correlation - exists when two variables are not related - the absence of a relation between themcorrelation coefficient - a numerical way to express the relationship of two variables - between -1 and +1, indicating the direction (positive or negative) and the strength (how close to the extremes of -1 or +1experimental methods - research methods that attempt to isolate cause by manipulating a variable that is hypothesized to be the cause of another variabledependent variable - outcome or the predicted effectindependent variable - variable that the researcher has control of and actually manipulatesexperimental group - group that participates in the manipulation or "treatment" in an experimentcontrol group - group that participates in the "treatment absent" condition in an experimentrandom assignment - method of placing participants in an experiment in either the control group or experimental group - purpose is to make sure the groups are not different in any way other than the treatment conditiondescriptive statistics - numerical ways to efficiently and clearly describe observed information; examples include measures of central tendency and measures of variabilitymeasures of central tendency - numerical ways to express how observations (data) gather around the middle of a distributionmean - a measure of central tendency - arithmetic average of a set of observations (data)median - a measure of central tendency - mid-point of the


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