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UCM CHEM 002-01 - Lab 4 Visualing Atomic Orbitals-Justin Bates

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1RESULTS/DISCUSSIONInclude the following in the summary portion of your report:1. Print out plots of each orbital by ascending n & !-value (i.e. 1s, 2s, 2p, etc.) sizedin a manner that they may be shown on a page or two. On top of each plot,draw (by hand) and label circles and lines that represent the radial nodes(concentric spheres around the nucleus) and angular nodes (planes passingthrough the nucleus) present in each orbital. Is there a mathematical pattern inthe number of each type of node and the n or !-value for the orbital? If so,summarize this rule for both radial and angular nodes.- There is a mathematical pattern in each number and in each node. If theelectron changes then the radical increases and the angular decreases.2. In general, for a given quantum mechanical system, the more nodes in a wavefunction, the higher the energy. Recall that the energy of a 1–electron atom or ionis given by –Z2hR∞/n2. Does the dependence of the orbital energy on n makesense in terms of the total number of nodes in each type of orbital? Explain.yes , because the number will change in the total number of nodes when theenergy shifts or changes.3. If you compare orbitals with different principal quantum numbers (n) but thesame angular momentum (!) and magnetic (m!) quantum numbers, what are twospecific differences between them? To strengthen your response, make side-byside plots of a 2p-, 3p-, and 4p-orbital using the same display parameters tocompare these orbitals. To do this, plot the 4p-orbital in a frame of the appropriatesize and save the file in .tif format. Plot the other two orbitals sequentially bydecreasing n-value without changing the size of the frame and save them in asimilar fashion so that you may paste the pictures side-by-side in Microsoft Wordfor printing.-4. As the nuclear charge increases, the size of any particular orbital decreases dueto the greater positive charge attracting the electron to the nucleus. To investigatethis effect, compare the sizes of various orbitals for hydrogen (Z = 1) and carbon(Z = 6). Do this by choosing a fixed n, !, and m!, plotting the orbital for hydrogen ina frame of the appropriate size, and then changing Z without changing the size ofthe frame. As in results item 1 above, plot the orbitals and save the image so thatyou may paste the pictures side-by-side in Microsoft Word for printing.2Orbital1s(m=0)2s(m=0)1p(m=1)z=1 hydrogenz=6


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