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COLUMBIASTATE CRMJ 1010 - Criminal Justice Study Guide

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Criminal Justice Study Guide Social Order / Evolution of Common LawNorms are best described as what? Mutually understood standards and expectations of behaviorNorms defined with consequences for non-compliance are referred to as what? LawsThe earliest laws inspired by God’s wishes became known as what type of law? Sacred LawFrom a social control perspective, the three primary institutions of influence are what? Family/extended family, religion/supernatural force, and government/justice systemsThe Reef of the Shire (Sheriff) was originally appointed by the king to do what? To collect taxes, specifically death taxesA “tun” in medieval England refers to what? Village or townA “shire” in medieval England refers to what? Groups of villages or a countyA “tithing” in medieval England refers to what? A group of 10 men who defended the tun when neededIn medieval England, who had the King’s authority to arrest the sheriff? CoronerThe decisions made by the King’s justices were recorded and agreed to be used as the basis for similar decisions by future justices in like mannered cases. This became known as what? Common LawIn Medieval England, the Kings justices making their yearly tour around their assigned shires to hear cases became known as what type of court? Circuit CourtThomas Jefferson used what English document as the basis for the U.S. Constitution? Magna CartaUnder Common Law, the Latin term “stare decisis” refers to what? Case precedentChapter OneThe concept of “due process” and “separation of powers” was first addressed in what document? MagnaCartaIn the American legal system, the Crime Control Model tends to support what? Public orderThe Due Process Model tends to support what? Individual rightsThe three major areas of study within Criminal Justice are what? Police, courts, and correctionsA “presumption of innocence” is the basis of which judicial model? Due processA “conservative” Supreme Court is one that tends to make decisions based on which judicial model? Crime controlThe ‘burden of proof’ required for a conviction in a criminal court is what? Proof beyond a reasonable doubtThe phase where the defendant is Arraigned (enters a plea), Plea Bargains, is Tried, or has the charges dropped, is known as what? AdjudicationAn Initial Hearing is held to do what? To ensure the defendant understands the charges and has legal representation.An “indictment” is a formal document submitted to the court that establishes what? Probable cause of a specific person committing a specific offense.The two ways that a prosecutor can secure an “indictment” is through a _________ or a ________. Preliminary hearing or Grand JuryName the five meta-influences over the Criminal Justice System, in order. Civil Rights Movement, Vietnam War, War on Crime, Homeland Security, Public concern over bias and discriminationWhat is a Landmark Decision by the Supreme Court? A Landmark Decision by the Supreme Court defineswhat rights guaranteed by the Constitution federal and state criminal justice systems must recognize.Name the landmark decision that established the Exclusionary Rule in 1914 and explain its ruling. Which Amendment did it focus on? Weeks VS U.S focused on the 4th amendment which is the protection againstunreasonable searches or seizures. Weeks home was unlawfully searched, and the evidence seized was used to charge him with a crime. Since there was no search warrant issued, the search was illegal and all evidence was thrown out, acquitting Weeks. MAPS VS OHIOChapter TwoA theory that blames male domination for female offending is what? The feminist theory on criminologyCrime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) is a strategy of crime prevention stemming from which criminological theory? Chicago School of CriminologyThe Uniform Crime Report (UCR) is compiled yearly by what organization? FBIThe oldest data base of crime in the U.S. is the what? International Association of Police (IACP)The “dark figure of crime” represents the difference between data reported in the UCR and the data reported by what ‘unofficial’ survey? National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)Flaws in data reported by the UCR is attributed to what factors? Federal crime data is not included, UCR represents only crime known to local/state police, unreported crimes not included, definitions of crime vary from place to place, and there is no official sanction of local/state police for failing to report crime data.The most common reason given by respondents to the NCVS for NOT reporting crime to the police is what? Matter was dealt with in another wayResearch into crime data that compares crime trends over a long period of time is called what? Longitudinal ResearchFear of victimization is more prevalent among what age group? SeniorsActual victimization is more prevalent among what age group? Teens and young adultsThe movement of crime from urban centers out to rural communities due to increased levels of police activity in the cities is called what? DislocationThe concepts of victim contribution, victim proneness, and victim provocation are part of the Victim ___________ Theories. PrecipitationThe victim who appears intoxicated, flashing money and expensive jewelry, prior to an attack may be categorized under which theory of victimology? Victim Contribution (Victim Precipitation Theory)An illegal immigrant, or person otherwise engaged in their own criminal activity, may be targeted by a criminal because they are less likely to report the crime. This is an example of which theory of victimology? Victim Proneness (Victim Precipitation Theory)The idea that certain groups or sub-cultures may have a higher risk of victimization due to their patterns of high-risk behavior and exposure to high risk situations is called what? Lifestyle Theories of VictimizationThe concept that people who hang out with people who engage in criminal behavior are more likely to become victims themselves is the basis for which category of victimology? Differential AssociationTarget hardening using physical barriers, camera surveillance, and enhanced security intended to eliminate or minimize the perception of a lack of protection and is referred to as what? Hardening the TargetThe harm that may occur to a victim due to the negative response of the criminal justice system, the media, the public, or even family members is called what? Secondary VictimizationThe 2004 federal law that guarantees

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