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MCB 100 EXAM 1 - quizlet 2

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1. key distinctionofmicroorganismsfrom otherorganismsmicroorganisms do not form differentiatedtissues2. 1 mm = ?microns10003. 1 m = ? mm 10004. 1 micron = ? nm 10005. "little things"small to largeatoms ==> small molecules (amino acids,nucleotides, sugars) ==> biologicalmacromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids,polysaccharides, lipids) ==> subcellularstructures (viruses, ribosomes,microtubules) ==> Rickettsia, Chlamydia,Mycoplasma, and Nanobacteria ==> mostbacteria and archaea ==> yeasts andflagellated protozoa ==> typical plant andanimal cells, amoebae ==> ciliatedprotozoa ==> zooplankton (smallmulticellular animals)6. subcellularaggregates ofmoleculesviruses, viroids, prions7. traits of allliving cells1. Able to grow and reproduce (can convertnonliving nutrients into living cytoplasm) 2. Genetic material is DNA 3. Metabolism 4. Able to make or acquire ATP 5. Able to synthesize proteins 6. Bound by an active cell membrane8. function ofribosomesread mRNA and synthesize proteins9. traits of viruses 1. Not cellular organisms 2. Consist of some genetic material, eitherDNA or RNA, surrounded by a coat ofprotein (capsid) 3. Some animal viruses have a membrane-like envelope of lipids and proteins, butmany viruses lack this feature 4. Lack ribosomes and tRNAs -- cannotsynthesize proteins on their own 5. Contain few or no enzymes -- lackmetabolic pathways 6. Lack ATP -- no means of generating ATP 7. Obligate intracellular parasites -- mustbe inside host cell to have life-likefunctions10. sizes of virusesand bacteriasmall - largehemoglobin ==> Poliomyelitis ==>Adenovirus ==> HIV ==> Poxvirus ==>Rickettsia ==> Streptococcus ==> E. coli11. have cellwall1. Most bacteria 2. Archaea 3. Plants 4. Fungi 5. Algae12. lack cellwall1. Mycoplasma 2. Animals 3. Protozoa13. cellmembraneLipid bilayer with embedded proteins thatacts as the diffusion barrier around the cell.Semipermeable.14. cell wall Net-like bag of polysaccharides thatsurrounds the cell and causes it to maintain aspecific shape. Protects the cell from osmoticlysis but is not a barrier to the diffusion ofsmall molecules.15. prokaryotes no nuclear membrane bacteria archaea16. eukaryotes have nuclear membrane protozoa fungi algae17. eukaryoteribosomesize80S18. prokaryoteribosomesize70S19. structuresnot found inprokaryotesnuclear membrane, endoplasmic reticulum,mitochondria, chloroplasts, membrane-boundorganelles, cytoskeleton, phagolysosomes,snRNPs20. chromosomenumber andshape -eukaryotesplural linear21. chromosomenumber andshape -prokaryotessingle circular22. size -eukaryotesmostly 4-20mm23. size -prokaryotesmostly 0.5-3mmMCB 100 FULL Exam 1 (UIUC)Study online at fungi Eukaryotic Cell wall - chitin Not photosynthetic Nutrient molecules absorbed by osmosis Both sexual and asexual reproduction Most have mitochondria Most prefer aerobic conditions25. protozoa Eukaryotic No cell wall Not photosynthetic Some absorb nutrient molecules by osmosis,others engulf food particles by phagocytosis Both sexual and asexual reproduction Most have mitochondria Most prefer aerobic conditions26. algae Eukaryotic Most have cell walls - cellulose Photosynthetic Both sexual and asexual reproduction Most have mitochondria Most prefer aerobic conditions Produce oxygen and fix carbon dioxide27. bactera Prokaryotic Most have cell walls - peptidoglycan Some are photosynthetic, most are not Some can fix nitrogen Wide variety of metabolic lifestyles Lack true sexual reproduction Many excrete enzymes to digest complexmolecules Some cause human disease28. archaea Prokaryotic Cell walls - protein or pseudopeptidoglycan Wide variety of metabolic lifestyles Some produce methane Some are extremophiles (hyperthermophiles) Lack true sexual reproduction Do not excrete enzymes to digest complexmolecules Do not cause human disease RNA polymerase is similar to eukaryotic enzymes29. viruses Not cellular Smaller than the smallest known cells Lack an active cell membrane Lack ribosomes, etc. for protein synthesis Lack ATP generating metabolism Must be inside a host cell to reproduce Genetic material can be DNA or RNA, ss or ds30. viroids Infections particles seen in plants, similar to RNAviruses except they lack a capsid31. prions Infections particles Lack nucleic acid Altered forms of normal proteins thatappear to be able to convert normalproteins to an abnormal shape uponcontact Abnormal form of protein is associatedwith disease32. microbes arefound...wherever there is liquid water, an energysource, and carbon33. microbes are thebasis chains34. microbes areessential for...elemental recycling in the environment35. 4 questionsdrove thedevelopment ofmicrobiology1. Can living organisms arise byspontaneous generation? 2. What causes fermentation? 3. What causes disease? 4. How can we prevent and treatinfectious diseases?36. scientific method 1. Observations lead to the formation ofa question 2. Create a hypothesis - a potentialanswer to the question 3. Design and conduct experiments totest the hypothesis 4. Based on the results of theexperiments, the hypothesis is rejected,modified, or accepted37. Aristotle 350 BC living creatures can arise by sexualreproduction, asexual reproduction, andspontaneous generation from non-livingmatter38. GirolamoFracostoro1546 Germ theory of disease39. Robert Hooke 1665 Describes tissue structure of cork, usesterm "cell"40. Francesco Redi 1668 Complex animals don't arise due tospontaneous generation - maggots don'tappear spontaneously in meat41. Antony VanLeeuwenhoek1676 Observes bacteria and protozoans usinga simple microscope of his ownconstruction Revived spontaneous regenerationdebate42. LazzaroSpallanzani1776 Repeated Needham's experiments, butavoided contamination of his broths byairborne bacteria. Sealed flasks also kept out oxygen.43. Edward Jenner 1789 Smallpox vaccine44. Thoedor Schwannand MatthiasSchleiden1839 All living things are composed of cells45. IgnazSemmelweis1847 Institutes handwashing - proceduresaved lives, but wasn't popular withmedical students46. FlorenceNightingale1855 Antiseptic nursing practices47. Rudolf Virchow 1858 All cells originate from preexisting cells48. Lois Pasteur 1861 - goose-necked flasks - bacteria donot appear in sterilized media Yeast turn grape juice into wine, butbacteria cause wine spoilage Pasteurization Starter cultures Anthrax vaccine for sheep Rabies vaccine49. Joseph Lister 1867 Antiseptic surgery50. Robert Koch 1876 - Shows anthrax caused by aspecific microorganism

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