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UA CLAS 160D2-SA - Outline for Greek and Roman Mythology

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Outline for Greek and RomanMythology |Classical LiteratureAustin College30 pag.Document shared on www.docsity.comDownloaded by: salma-ali-3 ([email protected])- "The Nature of Myth and Mythic Thinking" o Mythos – greek word that means “utterance”; fictional; falseo Homer – it referred as a tale or storyo Logos – analytic statement, logic, reason; non fictional, historical; trutho Mythology – Set of collection of mythso Homer and Hesiod preserved the original myths- "Goddesses and Dying Gods of the Ancient Middle East" o Egyptian - see noteso Sumerian/Mesopotamian- - see noteso Babylonian – nee noteso Canaanite/Cypriot/greek – see noteso Anatolian/greek/roman – see notes- Creation & the Rise of Zeus – an attempt to answer the questions of life; imaginative responseo Anthropomorphic – suggesting human characteristics for godso Cosmos v. Chaos – - Hesiod, Theogony (700 BC) – Epic poem on birth of Gods, cosmos, rise of Zeuso Personification of Heaven and Eartho Chaos – gap, chasmo Mother Earth (Gaia)o Tartarus (underside of Earth)o Love (Eros)o Heaven (Ouranos)o Cronus Story, rise of zeuso themes- Ovid, pp. 5-9: A Roman View of Creationo Less personificationo Separation of elements: earth, fire, air, watero Humans are last to be created; animals with a spark of divinity- Contrast Topic: The Babylonian Creation Myth (1600 – 725 BC)o Cosmogony – Creation of world- Prometheus – Titan, he can see the future.o Epimetheus – Brother, afterthoughto Prometheus gives fire and other gifts to humans. Art, justice, politics, reverenceo Prometheus tricks Zeus story, bad meat, steals fire again. Chained to mountain.- Pandora – punishment. Made by Hephaestus from clay.o Jar – evils released except for hopeo Misogyny – neg view of women- Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound o Philanthropia – love for humans, gives god privileges to humanso Bound by haeph on caucus mnts, wedge in chest, eagle eats liver o Suffers for pity of humanso Gifts: building, astronomy, math, writing, farming, taming animals, transportation, meds, sacrifices- Unbound- Heracles rescues him off mountaino Prom knows secret for zeus: if he marries thetis, Achilles would dethrone him- Ovid, pp. 9-12: Ages of Mano Decline: Gold-silver-bronze-irono Contradiction: older is better then young, but zeus better then cronus?- Zeus I: Sky God – dios, di-shine. Source of brightness. Also god of fertility and justiceo Replaced kronos/ouranos. He was more creative and less repressiveo Protects guests/hosts; punishes with lightning bolt- Lycaon - the cruel king of Arcadia who served Zeus a dish of a dismembered child. o Punishment: Lycaon into the form of a wolf, and killed Lycaons fifty sons by lightning Document shared on www.docsity.comDownloaded by: salma-ali-3 ([email protected])o First sinner/evil doer- The Flood – Corrupt human race must be destroyed. Fire too effective, flood was safer.o Gaia repopulated earth by throwing stones. Laas(stone) becomes laos(people)o Water purification - Hybris – arrogance/violence/aggression/succesful- Ixion - the first man to murder. He killed his father-in-law. After obtaining purification from the god Zeus, Ixion ungratefully sought to seduce Hera, the wife of Zeus. To foil Ixion, Zeus created a cloud in Hera's image; As punishment, Ixion was bound to a fire wheel in the underworld. - Salmoneus - claiming to be the equal to Zeus. Driving about in a chariot of bronze to imitate thunder and throwing firebrands to imitate lightning. Zeus destroyed him and his city with a thunderbolt.- Phaethon - When Phaeton obtains his father's promise to drive the sun chariot as proof, he fails to control it and the Earth is in danger of burning up when Phaeton is killed by a thunderbolt from Zeus to prevent further disaster.- Baucis & Philemon - old married couple, only ones in their town to welcome disguised gods Zeus and Hermes. They kill best goose. Citied destroyed, they are sparred to priesthood- Ambrosia, nector, ichor- Zeus/Jupiter – father, controls weather, fertilizes with rain. Many marriages/children.o Great bull; great procreator- Hera/Juno –final divine wife for zeuso Hierogamy – sacred marriageo Goddess of marriage/childbirth; queen of heaven- Teiresias - blind prophet of Thebes, famous for being transformed into a woman for seven years- Io - seduced by Zeus, who changed her into a heifer to escape detection by hera. Guarded by argus. Zeus commanded Hermesto kill Argus. Wanders earth forever- Callisto- Europa - The story of her abduction by Zeus in the form of a white bull was a Cretan story- Antiope -. Zeus was attracted by her beauty and came to her in the guise of a Satyr. Antiope conceived twins by Zeus, dionysus, to whose worship she had been devoted, caused Antiope to go mad. She wandered restlessly over all of Greece- Leda - Zeus came to Leda in the form of a swan. Leda bore Helen in an egg- Ganymede - Ganymede was the most attractive among mortals, by reason of which he was abducted by Zeus in the form of an eagle to serve as cupbearer to the gods and as Zeus' beloved. o Pedastry- Problem: God of justice is an adulterer and raper; Hera never had affairs.- Dual nature- Greek Earth goddesses – Gaia, rhea, themis, Hera- Earth – Gaia, Ge. Nourisher, fertility. Minerals.- Themis – titaness and predicted future. Oracle of Delphi after gaia- Demeter/Ceres, - Persephone- Erysichthon - he cut down trees in a grove, sacred to Demeter to disrespect gods. Hybris. Punished with insatiable hunger.- Daphne & Apollo - - Cephalus & Procris - - Hades & the Underworld - Ares- Danaides – filled leaky pitchers- Tantalus - offered up his son, Pelops, as a sacrifice to the gods. He cut Pelops up, boiled him, and served him up as food for the gods. Food always out of reach for punishment- Sisyphus – push boulder up hill- Homer, Odyssey, Book XI (pp. 249-70)- The Fates – clotho - spinner, lachses - cutter, atropes - scroll- Admetus - Apollo gave to Admetus was persuading the Fates to reprieve Admetus of his fated day of death. Wife replaces him for death. Heracles wrestles with fates- Sea Gods / - Trickster Gods - Poseidon, - Oceanus, Document shared on www.docsity.comDownloaded by: salma-ali-3 ([email protected])- Nereus & Nereids, - Proteus- Ceyx & Alcyone – ceryx dies, she threw herself into the sea in her grief. Out of compassion, the gods changed them both into halcyon birds, named after her. Model marriage- Hermes, -

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