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UT KIN 310 - Complete Study Guide Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

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Study Guide: Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease1. Cardiovascular disease is any disease that affects the heart or blood vessels.2. Cardiovascular disease is the leading/ #1 cause of death in the U.S. 3. The cardiovascular disease that causes the most deaths is Coronary Heart Disease.4. Arteriosclerosis is the buildup of fatty, plaque material in the inner layer of the blood vessels. When this affects the heart, it is called Coronary Heart Disease. When it affects the brain, it is called Cerebrovascular Disease. When it affects the legs, it is called Peripheral Artery Disease.5. Why does the blockage of a coronary artery cause a heart attack?There is a blockage that prevents blood flow and causes the heart to die 6. Why is a blockage in the left main artery just after it leaves the aorta more serious than if the blockage takes place in a coronary artery further away from the aorta?Blockage higher up affect more regions of the heart than area in a lower region7. During coronary artery bypass surgery, the blocked artery is bypassed. 8. During coronary angioplasty surgery a catheter/ balloon is used to open the artery. A stent may be put in the artery to help keep it open.9. A stroke may be due to a hemorrhage or an ischemia. Which is more common? Ischemia is more common it happens 80% of the time. ISCHEMIA- 80%- Cerebral Thrombosis: Clot at the site - Cerebral Embolism: Clot at another area but lodges the artery HEMORRHAGE- 20%- Depends on location and severity10. The severity of a stroke is determined by its location and the number of brain cells affected.11. Hypertension is the technical name for high blood pressure. 12. High blood pressure is a blood pressure >140/90 mmHg.Diastolic (Relaxing): 90Systolic (Contraction): 14013. What are the types of high blood pressure? What is the cause of each? Which is more common?Essential: More Common; Cause is unknownSecondary: Less common; Caused by another disease 14. High blood pressure is more common in societies with high sodium and alcohol intake, low potassium intake, and a high incidence of inactivity and obesity.15. Who has a higher incidence of high blood pressure in the U.S.Younger or older people? African Americans or Caucasians? Men or women?Men under 65 are more likely Woman over 65 are more likely 16. What are 7 major risk factors for heart disease? 1. Smoking 2. High Cholesterol (LDL ☹ HDL � )3. Obesity 4. Hypertension 5. Inactivity Unhealthy Eating6. Diabetes 7. Stress17. Smoking is the leading/ #1 cause of death in the U.S. The risk of a smoker developing heart disease is more than double than that of a non-smoker.18. Smokers with high blood pressure and high cholesterol have a 20fold increased risk for heart disease.19. Why or how does smoking increase the risk for heart disease?Nicotine increases heart rate and blood pressure; heart arrythmias; increases blood clotting ability; increasing cholesterol and decreases the HDL level; causes abnormalities in endothelial cell function; increases stiffness of muscular and elastic arteries20. Why is cholesterol essential for the body?Component of our cell membranes; formation of bile acidsused in digestion of fats; formation of hormones; body makes it and absorbs it 21. What are the differences between High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and Low –density lipoprotein (LDL)? HDL: Takes up cholesterol from the blood and body and transfers it to the liver for bile acid productionLDL: Formed after VLDL gives up triglycerides to the bodycells; leads to plaque build up in arteries; contributes to Coronary Heart Disease 22. A total cholesterol level of >200 is a low risk, of 200-239 is a moderate risk, and >239 is a high risk for heart disease.23. A LDL-Cholesterol level of >100 is optimal and >160-189 is high.24. The risk for heart disease in women increases sharply after menopause.25. What is diabetes?Having high blood glucose caused by insulin secretion, action, or both 26. How is the level of glucose in the blood controlled? The pancreas secretes insulin which forms glycogen from the glucose.27. What organs are often affected by diabetes?Kidneys, Eyes, Feet, Hands, Pancreas 28. What are Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes?Type 1: no to little levels of insulin is produced; juvenile onsetType 2: Poor lifestyle: Adult onset; insulin produces but the receptors do not recognize or respond to it 29. What are important exercise guidelines for Type 1 diabetics? For Type 2?TYPE 1- Consume a meal 1-3 hours prior to exercise - May need to reduce insulin before you exercise - Avoid Late night exercises because it may result in glucose comaTYPE 2- 90% of cases is because of poor lifestyle- 80% are obese 30. What are 5 important lifestyle changes that can help reduce the risk of heart disease?- Exercise More- Healthy Diet- Reduce Stress Level- Quit smoking or bad habits- Weight Loss (maintenance of healthy

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