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UT KIN 310 - Study Guide Exercise, Body Composition, and Weight Control-1

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Study GuideExercise, Body Comp & Weight Control1. Health Risks Associated with Obesity:a. High blood pressureb. Type 2 diabetes [80% obese]c. Lipid abnormalities d. Strokee. Heart Disease [increase risk 60-80%]2. In epidemiological studies, what measure is used to assess body composition?BMI [Body Mass Index].3. What is the formula for calculating BMI? BMI= kg/m2.1 in = 0.0254m 2.2 lbs = 1 kg 4. A normal BMI = 18.5-24.9.5. Overweight equals a BMI of 25 to 29.9.6. Obesity equals a BMI of greater than 30.7. In general, as BMI increases, cholesterol (increases/decreases/does not change).8. In general, as BMI increases, blood pressure (increases/decreases/does not change).9. When overfat [overweight] people lose weight, their blood pressure usually (increases/decreases/does not change).10. BMI is (higher/lower/the same) in older people than younger people.11. Who has the higher incidence of obesity men or women? African American, Hispanic, or Caucasian women?African American Women [56.9%]Hispanic Men [39%]12. In general, an excess of body fat carried in the deep adipose tissue is a greater risk than an excess of body fat carried in the adipose tissue.13. Total Daily Energy Expenditure is equal to Resting Metabolic Rate [RMR] + Thermic Effect of Physical Activity [TEPA] + Thermic Effect of Feeding [TEF].14. Of these factors, the one that we have the most control over is Thermic Effect of Physical Activity15. Someone with a greater fat free mass would have a higher RMR than someone with a lower fat free mass.16. In a typical person, about what % of the Total Daily Energy Expenditure is accounted for by Resting Metabolic Rate?60-70% TDEE17. About what % of the Resting Metabolic Rate is accounted for by organs? Skeletal muscle? Adipose tissue?Organs: 60-80%Skeletal Muscle: 20-30%Adipose Tissue: 5-10%18. What body tissues are the most metabolically active at rest?Heart KidneysBrain Liver19. With intense diet restriction, what happens to RMR?They trigger the body to suppress Resting Metabolic Rate by as much as 20%.20. What effect do exercise frequency, intensity, and time have on the thermic effect of physical activity?Workout often = expend more caloriesHigher Intensity = expend more caloriesLonger workout = expend more calories21. Why will a high fit person potentially have a higher thermic effect of physical activity than a low fit person?Because a fit person will be able to perform more intense levels for a longer period of time.22. What is Excess Post exercise Oxygen Consumption? How long does it last?What the body uses to return to it resting state; takes 15 minutes – 48 hours to recover back to resting state23. What effect does exercise intensity have on Excess Post exercise Oxygen Consumption [EPOC]?The greater the intensity the more EPOC [kcal’s] will be consumed. Typically, it will take alonger time to recover. 24. What effect does exercise duration have on Excess Post exercise Oxygen Consumption?The greater the duration the more EPOC [kcal’s] will be consumed. Typically, it will take alonger time to recover.25. What is a primary determinant of where we deposit fat on our body?Genetic Traits [men store fat in the abdomen, women in the lower body]26. Excess fat deposited in what part of the body causes the greatest health risk?Visceral or deep tissue in the abdominal area.27. A waist circumference > 35 inches men and > 40 inches in women is high.28. What is energy balance?Energy Intake = Energy Expenditure [Energy In] [Energy Out]29. What is positive energy balance?Calorie Intake > Calorie Expenditure[you GAIN weight]30. What is negative energy balance?Calorie Intake < Calorie Expenditure[you LOSE weight]31. How much of a calorie deficit is needed to lose one pound of fat?3,500 kcals PER WEEK32. What are the strengths and weaknesses of dieting to lose weight?Pro’s Con’sMaintain exercise level Possibility of losing muscle mass. Easier to control You will go OFF dietLose fat mass33. What are the strengths and weaknesses of exercising to lose weight?Pro’s Con’sHigher EPOC Harder to burn off all the calorieIncrease muscle mass. intake. 34. About how many minutes of moderate exercise a day are recommended to prevent weight gain?40-60 minutes35. About how many minutes of moderate exercise a day are recommended for maintaining weight loss?60-90 minutes36. From the National Weight Registry study, what three factors are associated with maintaining weight loss?Having a Low Fat and High Carbohydrate Diet.Frequent Self-Monitoring.Physical Activity.37. Recommendations for weight loss include a caloric intake of no less than 1,200 calories per day,a negative caloric balance of no more than 1,000 calories per day, a maximal weight loss of 1-2pounds per week, and should include 1-3 pounds of LEAN mass loss per 10 pounds of FAT loss.38. In general women have more body fat than men because the have more essential fat.[3% men; 12% women]39. What is the formula for determining density?Mass/Volume40. Underwater weighing is used to determine water displacement which is then used to determine body density. Body density is then converted to percent fat by using a formula.41. The BOD Pod uses air displacement to measure body mass which is then used to determine body density. Body density is then converted to percent fat by using a formula.[Volume of water displaced = weight of air – weight of H2O]42. The primary source of error with densitometry is in converting from body density to percent fat This error occurs because we assume that everyone has the same density of bone.43. If someone has more dense bones than normal will we underestimate or overestimate their %fat?44. If someone has less dense bones than normal will we underestimate or overestimate their %fat?45. What are some problems with using skinfolds to measure body composition?- Underpredicts obese people- Overpredicts lean people- Difficult to take skin folds on fatter people - Inter-tester error- Indirect measure46. What is the equation for calculating fat mass given %Fat and total mass?Fat Mass= Total mass x %fat47. What are the two equations for calculating fat free mass given fat mass, %fat and total mass?Fat Free Mass = Weight x FFM =Weight x % FFM48. What is the equation for calculating someone’s projected weight given fat free mass and %fat?Fat Mass + Fat Free Mass = WeightFat Free Mass/ Percent Fat Free MassFat Mass / Fat Mass49. In BIA an alternating current is passed through the body. Muscle conducts the


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