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UT Knoxville POLS 101 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1- The Five Principles of Politics  Chapter 1 pg. 7- 1. All political behavior has a purpose.- 2. Institutions structure politics.- 3. All politics is collective action.- 4. Political outcomes are the products of individual preferences, institutional procedures, and collective action.- 5. How we got here matters.o Know what they are and applications (Discussion Board 1 for example)- Different Forms of Government Chapter 1 pg. 5 & 6- Autocracy- A form of government in which a single individual rules. - Oligarchy- A form of government in which a small group of landowners, military officers, or wealthy merchants controls most of the governing decisions.- Democracy- A system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in government, usually through the selection of keypublic officials.- Constitutional Government- A system of rule that establishes specific limits on the powers of the government.- Authoritarian Government- A system of rule in which the government’s power is not limited by law, though it may be restrained by other social institutions. - Totalitarian Government- A system of rule in which the government’s power is not limited by law and in which the government seeks to eliminate other social institutions that might challenge it. Chapter 2- What tensions led to the Revolutionary War  Chapter 2 pg. 36 (but really pg. 32 onward)- After 1750 the British government started looking to the North American colonies for money to pay off the government’s debt. Basically, the British government paid to: defend the colonies during the French and Indian War, protect the colonies from Indianattacks, and protect colonial shipping using the British navy. Meaning the colonies were expensive but they paid relatively little taxes. To counter this the British government decided to create the Stamp act, which taxed merchants, and the Sugar act, with taxedplanters, among other taxes. The colonists, especially those taxed, were outraged by the meddling and turned to “No Taxation withoutrepresentation” and boycotting of British goods. The British government retracted their new taxes, and the taxed boycotters were happy. However, other groups were not and a confrontation between colonists and British soldiers resulted in the Boston Massacre in 1770. Merchants and Planters supported the British. The radicals who were unhappy with the British rule consisted of shopkeepers, artisans, laborers, and farmers; all people of middle class with no political influence. The radicals asserted that British power supported unjust political and social structure within the colonies. The tea act of 1773 threatened the colonial merchants because it gave monopoly on the export of tea from Britain to the East India Company. Boston Tea Party was a way of goading the British into enacting harsh reprisals. The British fell into the trap and it forced the British supporters into a corner by cutting off theirjobs and income. By this point a lot more people wanted to separate from the British rule. The first continental congress meets in 1774. - The Declaration of Independence  Chapter 2 pg. 36- At the second the Declaration of Independence is created in 1776.- Consisted of Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Roger Sherman of Connecticut, John Adams of Massachusetts, and Robert Livingston of New York. - Derived from John Locke, “Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness could not be abridged by government.”- Focused on grievances, aspirations, and principles that might unify- More radical and libertarian, used its ideas as justification for overthrowing tyranny.- The Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Chapter 2 pg. 37 & 38- The first written constitution that was in place from 1777 to 1789 when they were replaced by the Constitution.- All the 13 states were independent and didn’t want to give up their independence for the advantages of cooperating with one another. The Articles were created to form a central government with defined and limited power that left most power to the states. This government was the Congress.- There was no executive or judiciary branch. At this time the Congress only served as messengers for the state legislatures. - The members were chosen by state legislatures, paid by state treasuries, and subject to immediate recall by state authorities.- Each state, regardless of size, had one vote. A unanimous agreement was necessary to change the Articles of Confederation.- Congress had the power to declare war and make peace, make treaties and alliances, to coin or borrow money, appoint senior officers of the Army, and to regulate trade with Native Americans. - It could NOT levy taxed or regulate commerce among the states. There also was no Army so it didn’t matter that they could appoint,there was only the state militias. They also couldn’t prevent one state from discriminating against another for any reason. - The Formation of the US Constitution  Chapter 2 pg. 40- The Shays Rebellion was the focal event that led to the Constitutional Convention in 1787. A former army captain led a mob of farmers in a rebellion against the Massachusetts government in 1787. The idea was to prevent the western county officials from meeting to foreclose their debt-ridden lands. - The state militia dispersed the mob after several days, but the Congress was unable to act. Because of this the idea that the Articles were insufficient. o Governmental Branches and Makeup  Chapter 2 pg. 42- Legislative Branch (Congress)- Must have full approval of Houseand Senate for the enactment of a law. Authority to collect taxes, borrow money, regulate commerce, enact legislation, declare war, confirm or reject many Presidential appointments, and maintain an army and navy.o House of Representatives- larger states, in regard to population, have more weight. Hold two-year terms of office. Elected directly by the people. Sole power to originate revenue bills.  Was created to be directly responsible to the people,this was the way of getting the people to consent to this new Constitution, and to enhance the new governments power. o Senate- equal representation through the states. Hold six-year terms. Prior to 1913, state legislatures chose state senators but now they are elected directly by the people. 1/3rd of terms expires every two years (staggering terms, second goal).  Alone can ratify treaties and approve


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