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UT CC 302 - Rome 9

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Roman Religion1. The Basicsa. Polytheisticb. No written textsc. Ritual-based religiond. State vs. private religion2. Types of Roman Divinitiesa. Anthropomorphic godsb. Personificationsc. Nature deitiesd. Imported divinities 3. Olympian Godsa. Anthropomorphic – in human formb. Most important and most honored divinitiesc. Jupiter, Mars, and Venus particularly important in Rome4. Jupiter and Junoa. King and Queen of the godsb. Jupiter – closely connected to Rome c. Juno – goddess of marriage 5. Mars and Minervaa. Warrior godsb. Depicted with weaponsc. Mars as father of Romulus 6. Venusa. Goddess of Loveb. Mother of Aeneasi. Worshipped as Venus Genetrix7. Neptune and Plutoa. Brothers of Jupiter and Junob. Neptune – god of the seac. Pluto – King of the underworld?8. Ceresa. Goddess of the Grainb. Fertility Goddessc. Adopted from Greeks in 496 BC during famined. Attributes:i. Grainii. Cornucopia 9. Vestaa. Goddess of the Hearthb. Virgin goddessc. Priestesses – Vestal Virgina10. Other Olympiansa. Apollo/Phoesbusi. God of prophecy, music, archeryb. Diana – goddess of the huntc. Mercury – messenger godd. Vulcan – god of the forgee. Bacchus – god of wine11. Divine Epithetsa. Specific function of godb. Aspect in which he/she is worshippedc. Examplesi. Jupiter Capitolinusii. Mars Ultoriii. Venus Genetrix12. Demigodsa. Often viewed as heroesb. Deified after deathc. Examplesi. Hercules (also foreign/imported god)ii. Romulusiii. Divine Julius Caesar13. Personificationsa. Characteristics that Romans valueb. Given human form and worshippedc. Examplesi. Fortuna – Good fortuneii. Victoria – Victory 14. Nature divinitiesa. Personifications of natural thingsb. Genius loci – “Spirits of the place”15. Imported/Foreign Divinitiesa. Feature of polytheismb. Result of early contactsc. Result of later conquestsi. Evocatiod. Examplesi. Quirinus (Sabine)1. Became connected with Deified Romulusii. Heracles (Greek – via Etruscan)iii. Isis (Egyptian)16. Roman Priesthoodsa. The Basicsi. Not full-time positionsii. Primarily Maleiii. Members of colleges1. Collegia2. Fixed number of positions3. Elected for life17. Pontificial Collegea. Two Groups of Priestsi. Pontifexes (16)1. Main duty – preside over religious festivals2. Pontifex Maximus – “Greatest priest”ii. Flames (15)1. Associated with an individual god2. Different responsibilities3. 3 major flames: Jupiter, Mars18. Flamen Dialisa. Cult of Jupiter b. Abide by various rulesc. Wore hat called apex19. College of Augursa. Communication with godsb. Interpreting various signsc. Derived from Etruscansd. Three main types of auguryi. Flight and eating habits of birdsii. Reading entrailsiii. Interpreting portents20. Interpreting Birdsa. Auguraculum – located on Capitolineb. Methods:i. Flight of Birds1. Observing direction of flight2. Listening to the sound of their callsii. Bird Behavior1. Pullarius – observed eating habits of sacred chickens2. Appius Claudius21. Reading Entrailsa. Haruspex – reader of entrailsb. Practice adopted from Etruscansc. After sacrifice of animal, examination of internal organsi. Bronze liver 1. Divided into 40 sections for different gods22. Interpreting Portentsa. Portent – unsolicited message from godsb. Some Types:i. Lightningii. Famineiii. Natural disastersiv. Exceptional, bizarre events (recorded by authors)c. Examples:i. Omens associated with death of famous men1. When Julius Caesar died, a comet appeared = his apotheosis to heaven23. Other Priestsa. Decemvirii. Consulted during times of emergencyii. Custodians of the Sibylline booksiii. Introduction of new god or ceremony to fix problemsb. Fetial Collegei. International relations1. Declaring war2. Signing peace treaties24. The Basics of Animal Sacrificea. Primary form of worshipb. Male animals sacrificed to gods c. Female animals to goddessesd. White animals to gods of the skye. Black animals to gods of the underworldf. Perfection of the animalg. Willingness of animalh. Purity of participantsi. Sacrifice at Altarj. Read entrailsk. Burnt offerings to the gods25. Lustratioa. Ritual purification of spacei. Lead pig, sheep, and bull around the perimeterb. Followed by suovetauriliai. Sus – pigii. Ovis – sheepiii. Taurus – bull 26. Roman Superstitiona. Bulla – amulet worn by boysb. Curse tablets27. Roman Templesa. Templum – sacred precinctb. Aedes – Temple buildingc. Ara – altard. Cella – Main room of aedesi. Houses cult statue28. Roman temple Architecturea. Influencesi. Etruscansii. Greeks 29. Temple of Castor and Polluxa. Castor and Pollux – Greek heroesi. Appeared in Roman battleb. Temple rebuilt in AD 630. Temple of Concorda. Personified goddessb. Vowed in 387 BCc. Built in 167 BCd. Commemorate reconciliation between patricians and plebse. No real archaeological remainsi. Mound of concrete ii. Marble threshold of cellaiii. Two column basesiv. Corinthian

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