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UT CC 302 - Rome 6

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1. Death of Julius Caesara. Triumphant Return to Rome (45/44 BCE)b. Named dictator perpetuus (dictator forever)c. Reformsi. Cancellation of debtsii. Distribution of land to veteransiii. Building programd. Clementia (mercy) for supporters of Pompeye. Assassinated by conspiracy of the Senators on March 15, 44 BCE: “Beware the Ides of March”f. “Et tu, Brute”i. Helped kill Caesar even though they were friendsii. Coin minted by Brutus, 42 BCE2. Second Triumviratea. Mark Antony, Octavian, Lepidus (general, politician, money-man)b. Mark Antonyi. Loyal supporter of Caesarii. Consul in 44 BCEc. Lepidusi. Loyal supporter of Caesard. Octaviani. Great nephew of Caesar ii. Adopted by Caesar; Caesar’s heiriii. Becomes consul; condemns assassins of Caesare. Plebian Assembly grants Octavian, Antony, Lepidus imperium to restore the statei. Proscriptions: 4,700 of their enemies killed (incl. Cicero)ii. In charge of appointing all magistrates (senatorial duty)f. Pact of Brundisium (40 BCE): Divide up the empirei. Octavian: Rome and the Westii. Antony: Eastiii. Lepidus: North Africa3. Dissolution of the Triumviratea. Lepidus forced out by Octavian in 36 BCEb. Antony and Cleopatrai. Involvement with Cleopatra VII from 41 BCEii. Divorced Octavian, sister of Octavian in 32 BCEc. Octavian declares war against Cleopatrai. Defeated Antony and Cleopatra in 31 BCEii. Battle of Actiumiii. Suicide of Antony and Cleopatra (30 BCE)4. End of the Republica. Octavian consolidates his power in Rome (29-28 BCE)b. “Restores the Republic” (27 BCE)i. Retains autocratic powerii. Granted to him by the Senatec. First of the Roman Emperorsi. Inaugurates the Pax Romana (Roman Peace)ii. Golden Age of RomeGaius Julius Caesar Augustus (27 BCE – 17 CE/AD)1. Augustus: “Revered One”a. A god?2. Princeps (“First Man”)3. Imperium = command of the imperial Roman armies4. Rome’s first emperor5. Reforms of Augustusa. Military reformsi. Reduced size of army, mostly in provincesii. Settled veterans on public land b. Constitutional Reformsi. Resigned consulship for maius imperiumc. Religious and Social Reformsi. Childlessness among elitesii. Adultery; sumptuary lawsiii. Consolidated religious offices under power of emperoriv. Resorted many templesv. “I found Rome a city of brick, I left it a city of marble”6. Ara Pacis Augustaea. Altar of Augustan Peacei. Commissioned by Senate to honor Augustus and inauguration as pontifex maximus ii. Art as political propaganda 7. Imperial Foraa. Forum Romanum because very crowdedb. Many emperors built new Fora (Forums)i. Forum of Caesarii. Forum of Augustusiii. Forum of Trajanc. Important political statementsi. Civic Buildings1. Comitium2. Curia3. Basilicasii. Temples1. Vesta2. Castor3. Saturn4. Concordiii. New Curia built1. Curia Juliaiv. Basilica Julia replaces Basilica Semproniav. Rostra moved and Enlarged8. Temple to Divine Juliusa. After assassination of Caesar – funeral in Forumi. Funeral oration delivered by Octavian on Rostrab. Body burned in front of Regia-office of Pontifex Maximusc. Temporary altar and column set up for Caesard. 42 BC: decree to build temple and institute cult and priesthood of Divine Julius Caesar9. Fora of Caesar and Augustusa. Physically connectedb. Stoas along sidesc. Temples10. Forum of Caesara. Forum Juliumb. Built by Caesar in 46 BCc. Emphasis on symmetryd. Temple of Venus Genetrixi. Mother of hero, Aeneasii. Julian family claims descent from Aeneas’ son Iulus11. Temple of Venus Genetrixa. Remains today reconstructed from Trajan periodb. Three corinthian columns12. Forum of Augustusa. Portico architecture enclosing forumb. Exedra sections: semi-circular structuresc. Temple to Mars Ultor (the Avenger)i. Dedicated after Battle of Philippi1. Defeat of assassins of Caesarii. Related to Venus Genetrixd. Statuaryi. Cult Statues1. Venus 2. Mars 3. Juliusii. Exedra1. Aeneas2. Alban Kings3. Julians4. Romulus5. Summi viriiii. Chariot of

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