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UT CC 302 - Rome 5

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The Late Republic1. Overviewa. Breakdown of stabilityi. Social Underpinnings (fragmentation)ii. Political causes (Senate loss of control)b. Reforms of the Gracchi Brothersc. Social Warsd. Rise of the “Big Men” (with big armies)i. Galius Marius vs. Sullaii. The First Triumvirateiii. The Second Triumvirate2. The Gracchi Brothersa. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus – plebian classb. 2nd c. BCEc. Problemsi. Office of Tribune of plebs – working for Senateii. Widening gap between elites and common peopleiii. Poverty and landlessnessiv. Corruption in land grantsv. Increase in slavery; greater potential for revoltsvi. Weakness of citizen militiad. Solutionsi. Tiberius Gracchus elected Tribune of the Plebs (132 BCE)1. “Activist” tribune – return office to role of protector of the people2. Passes land reform legislationa. Redistribute public land to landless peasantsb. Recipients and their dependents liable to military serviceii. Gaius Gracchus elected Tribune of the Plebs (123 BCE)1. Judicial Reforms – Equites acquire control of extortion court2. Sale of grain to Rome’s poor at below market price3. Proposed Roman citizenship to Italians (failed)iii. Gracchi brothers assassinated1. Tiberius: beaten by a mob of senators2. Gaius: Senatus consultum ultimum against him; committed suicide3. Aftermath of the Gracchia. Militia problem unresolvedb. Rural poor, urban crowd and Italians disappointed c. Greater political power for Equestriansd. Violence as political toole. Precedent for using Tribune of the Plebs to pass legislation unpopular to the Senatef. Divided Senatei. Optimates (supporters of traditional oligarchic system)ii. Populares (politicians who supported the interests of the plebs)4. Marius vs. Sullaa. Gaius Marius:i. Not from Rome, made his mark as a great generalii. Tribune of the plebs, gained popular supportiii. Novus homo – “New Man”iv. Favorite of the popularesv. Elected consul 6 times!vi. Wars on two fronts (Gaul and Africa) b. Marian Military Reformsi. Standing professional armyii. No property qualificationsiii. State provided training and equipmentiv. Retirement benefits for veterans5. The Social War (90-88 BCE)a. Revolt of Rome’s Italian allies (socius, pl. socii – ally)b. Causesi. Exploitation (public lands)ii. Demand for Roman citizenshipc. Italian rebels establish a separate statei. Capital at Corfiniumd. Lost the war to Romei. Italians gained citizenshipii. All Italy south of Po united in single stateiii. Citizen population rise from 350,000 to over a million6. Sulla (138-79 BCE)a. Leader of the Optimatesb. Successful military careeri. Africa, Asia and Social Warc. Enemy of Gaius Mariusd. Civil War (86-82 BCE)e. Led army against Romef. Reign of terror – proscriptionsg. Dictatorship (82-79 BCE)i. Restored power of Senate, increased sizeii. Weakened power of Tribune of the Plebs7. Aftermath of Sullaa. Sulla retired from dictatorship, died shortly afterb. Reforms did not last, almost immediately repealed after his deathc. Important Precedents Set by Sullai. Leading army against RomeCivil Wars1. The First Triumviratea. Pompey, Caesar, Crassus (general, politician, money-man)b. Informal alliance to promote each other politicallyc. Pompey the Greati. Great General (under Sulla)ii. Suppression of piracy in Aegeaniii. General in the East (Seleucid Empire)d. Julius Caesari. Great orator/politician, quickly rose through the cursus honorumii. Prominent family (Julio-Claudian)iii. Favored by common peopleiv. Consul in 59 BCEv. Earned command in Gaul (58 – 53 BCE)1. Conquered all central Europe2. Crossed into Britaine. Gaius Crassusi. One of Rome’s wealthiest menii. Defeated Slave Revolt of Spartacus (with difficulty)iii. Consul with Pompey: Attacks Sulla’s reformsf. Caesar – named consuli. With support of Crassus and Pompeyii. As consul – passes legislation for Pompey and Crassus1. Land for Pompey’s troops2. Ratification of Pompey’s Eastern settlements3. Renegotiates Crassus’ tax-farming contracts4. Caesar gets command of Gaulg. Livy’s description of the First Triumvirate:i. “Conspiracy against the state by three of its leading citizens”h. Collapse of the triumviratei. Crassus killed (53 BCE) during war in Syria against the Parthians1. Loss of Roman standardsii. Death of Julia (Caesar’s daughter, Pompey’s wife)iii. Caesar in Gaul (until 50 BCE)1. Winning, gaining popularity, threat to Senate and Pompey2. Pompey vs. Caesar (Civil War 49-44 BCE)a. Pompey in Rome, sides with Senate against Caesari. Recall Caesar, “enemy of Rome” (senatus consultum ultimum)ii. Lay down army, return to Rome to face chargesb. Caesar Crosses the Rubiconi. Act of War – entering Roman territory with an armyii. Struggle plays out in Rome, Italy, Spain, Gaul, Greeceiii. Pompey murdered in Egypt in 48

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