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UT CC 302 - Rome 4

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The Punic Wars and the Expansion of Rome1. Rome vs. Carthagea. Modern Tunis, Tunisiab. Phoenician colonyc. Carthaginian Empire: North Africa, Sicily, Southern Spaind. Maritime Powere. Ally of Rome (509 BCE)f. 3 Punic Wars (264-146 BCE)2. 1st Punic War (264-241 BCE)a. Issue: control of Sicilyb. Where: Sicily and N. Africac. Birth of Roman navyi. The “Raven”d. Aftermathi. Sicily, Corsica, Sardiniaii. Made provinces of Rome3. 2nd Punic War (218-201 BCE)a. Where: Italy, Sicily, Spainb. Hannibali. Commander of Spainii. Seeks to expand Carthaginian poweriii. “begins” the warc. Battle of Zama (202)i. Publius Cornelius Scipio “Africanus” d. Peace Treaty (201) e. Surrender fleetf. Indemnitiesg. Loss of Punic Spaini. Made a province4. Rome vs. Macedoniaa. Four Macedonian Wars (214-148 BCE)i. Allied with Carthage in 2nd Punic Warii. Between Rome and Kingdom f Macedon under Philip Vb. Third Macedonian War: King Perseusi. Battle of Pydna (168 BCE)1. Roman victory: legion vs. phalanxii. End of the line of kingsc. Fourth Macedonian war:i. Creation of Province of Macedon (148 BCE)5. Rome vs. Greece and Carthage a. 3rd Punic war (149-148 BCE)i. Rome against Carthageii. Sack of Carthage (146 BCE): Province of Africab. Subjugation of Greece (148-146 BCE)i. Revolt of Achaean Leagueii. Sack of Corinth (146 BCE): Province of Macedonia6. Expansion of Rome: Summarya. 5th century: Northern Italyi. Hill tribesii. Etruscans – colonized with Roman citizensb. 4th century: (central/southern Italy)i. latium, Campania, Sammium, Apulia – municipia (ius Latiunum)c. 3rd-2nd century: (southern Italy, outside Italian peninsula)i. Magna Graeciaii. Punic Wars: Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, etc.State and Society in Late Republican Rome - 3rd to 1st Century BCE1. A Class-Conscious Societya. Senatorial Order (senatores)i. Net worth: 1,000,000 sestercesb. Equestrian Order (equites)i. Net worth 400,000 sestercesc. Common People (plebs)i. Freeborn Roman Citizensd. Slavese. Superseded patrician/plebians distinction of 5th-4th centuries2. The Seneatorial Ordera. Selectioni. Approval of censorii. Wealth iii. Magistrate (cursus honorum)iv. Successful military leaderb. Patron-client relationshipi. Patron: Protector/benefactorii. Client: Political supportc. Auctoritas3. The Equestrian Ordera. Recognition by the Censors (moral and financial requirements)i. Propertyii. Fides on the battlefield, in court, as a legislatoriii. Patron (private)iv. Beneficia (public) -giftv. Recommendation (by a senator)b. Roles in Roman Societyi. Senior officers in army and cavalryii. Trade, banking, manufacturingiii. Publicani: contracts with the state (tax collectors, etc.)4. Cursus Honorum – “Ladder of Offices”a. Quaestor (20): 30 years oldi. Financial officers (entry into Senate)b. Aedile (4): 36 years oldi. 2 plebian, 2 patrician (curule)ii. Public worksc. Praetor (8): 39 years oldi. Judicial officersd. Consul (2): 42 years oldi. Chief magistrates5. Curule Magistratesa. Curule magistrates (aedile, praetor, consul, censor, dictator)i. Toga Paetextaii. Accompanied by lictors with fasces (axe thing)6. Important Magistratesa. Tribune of the plebs (x10)i. Summon assembly of plebiansii. Right to veto lawsb. Censors (x2)i. Mostly ex-consulsii. 5-year termiii. Maintain the census (register of citizens and property)iv. Public moralsv. State finances 7. Dictatorshipa. Extraordinary magistrate with absolute authority for a period of 6 monthsi. Exception to Roman political principles ii. Collegiality and accountabilityb. Appointment: senate passed a decree (senatus consultum)8. Roman Provincesa. Provinces of Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Spain, Africa, and Macedonb. Later provinces:i. Asia (Pergamon): 133BCEii. Gaul (France)iii. Syriaiv. Egypt9. Governing the Provincesa. Governors (senatorial class) with imperium and staffi. Appointments for 1 yearii. Extension through prorogation iii. Absence of collegiality increased potential for abuseb. Taxationi. Censors established tax amountii. Auctioned to private companiesiii. Publicani loaned money to state; collected taxes in provincesiv. Publicani charged state interest and kept overpaymentsv. Publicani and governors often extorted from

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