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UT CC 302 - Rome 3

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The Monarchy and Early Republic1. Sources for the History of Early Romea. Archaeological remainsi. Roman forumii. Capitoline and Palatineb. Livy’s From the Foundation of Romei. Seven Kings of Romeii. Detailed accounts of their religions2. Brief Overview of Early habitation of Romea. 1000 BCE: earliest signs of human occupationb. 900-750 BCE: development of small villages on Palatinec. 750-500 BCE: i. Area of later Forum drainedii. Political unification of villages?3. Brief Overview of Early Habitation of Romea. 500 BCE:i. Area of Forum paved; first building in Roman Forum1. Regia: Complicated history; associated with the seven kings2. Temple of Vesta: Earliest religious buildings in the Forum3. Comitium and Curia: Uncertain function during Monarchy; later used by officials and senatorsii. Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus built on Capitolineiii. Etruscan influence4. Reconstruction of Early Rome5. Seven Kingsa. Romulus (pomerium)b. Numa (religious institutions)c. Tullus Hostilius (expansion throughout Latium)d. Ancus Marciuse. Tarquin the Elderf. Servius Tullius (“Servian constitution”)g. Tarquin the Proud6. Not hereditary; not restricted to Romansa. Roman: Romulus, Tullusb. Sabine: Numa, Ancusc. Etruscan: Tarquins7. The Monarchy: Governmenta. Rexi. Indefinite termii. Not hereditary1. Elected2. Ratified by senatorsiii. Imperiumiv. Ensure Stabilityv. Military Leaderb. Social structurei. Highly stratified with powerful aristocracyii. Clans (gens-singular; gentes-plural)c. Governmenti. 3 tribes of all citizens established by Romulusii. All citizens organized into 30 curiae1. 10 curiae for each tribe2. Assembly of citizens3. Decided was and peace4. Formed basis and organization of army8. Numa Pompiliusa. Second king of Rome, according to Livyb. Sabine originc. Established important religious institutions i. Established priesthoods, including Priest of Jupiter (Flamen Dialis)ii. Established cult to Vesta and priesthood9. Servius Tulliusa. Pseudo-legendary 6th king of Rome (575-535 BCE)b. Successful leader (rex) upon whom the curiae had conferred imperium?c. Servian Constitutioni. Reorganization of peopleii. Creation of census10. Servian Constitutiona. Assembly of the Centuriatesi. Centuries = division of the army1. 18 cavalry centuries (aristocrats)2. 170 infantry centuries in 5 classes based of wealthii. Proletarii (cf. proletariat)1. Poorest and majority of Romans2. Grouped in a single century3. Without military or political functioniii. Differences from early monarchy1. Power based on wealth (census), rather than birth11. Expulsion of the Kings (509 BCE)a. Tradition (Rape of Lucretia)b. Tarquin the Proud, king of Romec. Sextus, son of Tarquind. Lucretia, most virtuous wifei. Killed herself for being raped by Sextuse. Collatinus, husband of Lucretiaf. Tradition (Rape of Lucretia)i. Brutus, kinsmen of Lucretiaii. Makes appeal in Roman Forum to overthrow the Tarquins (Tarquins were brutal)iii. First two consuls elected by popular vote: Brutus and Lucius (Collatinus)12. End of the Monarchy, Beginning of the Republica. Historical Accounti. Shifting alliances/competition between Etruscan and Latin citiesb. The Republic < Res publica – “The public realm”i. Contract to res privita (“private realm”) under the monarchyii. (509-31 BCE)1. Social and Political Organization2. Expansion of Rome13. Social and Political Classesa. Political Officialsi. Consuls: 2 elected annuallyii. Magistrates: several elected annuallyiii. Religious officials: held by elitesiv. Dictator: only in times of emergency; 6-month limitb. Patriciansi. Heads of leading families in the old clans (gentes)ii. Monopoly on religious officesc. Plebiansi. Not necessarily poorii. Without access to aristocratic offices/religiousiii. Poorest suffered in debt slavery14. Livy’s Soldiera. Citizen-Soldieri. Fighting was seasonal and revolved around the cropsii. Fought in summer and came back for October to harvest and winteriii. Debt Slavery1. A soldier lost everything and was turned into a slave 15. “Struggle of the Orders”a. (494-287 BCE)b. Occurs over a long period of time in several stagesc. Patriciansi. Political monopoly1. Consuls (2) with imperium2. Centuriate Assembly3. Senatea. Advisory functionb. Senatus consultumii. Abuse of Poweriii. Religious exclusivityiv. Monopoly on public lands (acquired by war)d. Plebian Secession (490s BCE)i. Established plebian assemblyii. Tribunes of the plebs1. Summon assembly of the plebians2. Sacrosanctitas (inviolability)3. Political vetoe. Twelve Tablesi. Published by plebiansii. First written law code in Rome1. Family/marital law2. Inheritance laws3. Criminal laws4. Right of appeal5. Debt lawsf. Licinian-Sextian laws (367 BCE)i. Land and Debt Reform1. Gave plebians access to public land2. Debt reform to minimize interest and punishment for unpaidii. Access to Political and Religious Offices1. Consulship2. Magistrate positions (aedile, praetor, dictator)3. Increased religious officials to 10a. Five plebians, five patricians4. Offices of pontiffs (high priests) and augurs (read divine signs)16. Expansion of Romea. External Threats (5th BCE)i. Hill tribes1. Raided Roman/Latin landb. Cincinnatusi. Rome attacked by Aequi and Sabinesii. Roman army defeatediii. Senators nominated Cincinnatus as dictatoriv. Plowing his landv. Resolved conflict; defeated tribesvi. Fasces was given to him (symbol of power)vii. Exchanged fasces (bundled axes and rods)17. Rome and the Etruscansa. Veii – powerful Etruscan city; rival of Romeb. Continuous conflicts throughout 5th BCEc. Fall of Veii (396 BCE)i. 10 years of siege – year-round warfareii. Camillus, Roman general/dictator tunneled under city walliii. Executed males; enslaved women and childreniv. Colonized city (municipium); residents retained citizenship for military support18. Rome and the Gauls/Celtsa. Gauls/Celts of central Europe expanding southb. Attack Etruscan town of Clusiumc. 387 BCE – Sack of Romei. Defeated Romans at battle of Alliaii. Raided Romeiii. Sacked city for three monthsiv. Armistice – offer ransom to Gauls19. Expansion of Romea. Rome and Latiumi. Latin League1. 30 communities in Latium (including Rome)2. Loose alliance3. Purpose: regulate relationsii. Latin Rights1. Conubium – marriage 2. Commercium – Trade3. Ius migrationis – Right of movement / permanent residency20. Revolt of the Latins (341-338 BCE)a. After Rome defeat at Allia by Gauls, Latin broke treaty with Romeb. Outcomei. Became Roman citizens

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