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UT CC 302 - Rome 2

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Introduction to Rome - Early Iron Age1. Evidence for Iron age Italya. Archeological Evidencei. Villanovan Cultureii. Etruscan Cultureiii. Greek colonies in Sicily and South Italyb. Literary Evidencei. Livy’s From the Foundation of Romeii. Greek authors on Greeks in Magna Graecia and on Etruscans2. Early Habitation in Italya. First appearance of agriculture on 4000 BCEb. Small Villages (around 100 inhabitants)c. Huts with thatched roofsd. Simple social structure based on family/kinship relationse. Agricultural products: barley, wheat, olives, grapesf. Animal domestication: sheep, goats, cattle, pigs3. Polyglot Worlda. Greeksi. Magna Graeciaii. Sicily since 8th c. BCEb. Etruscansi. Non-Indo-European speaking settled in Etruria (mod. Tuscany)c. Phoenicians/Carthaginiansi. North Africaii. Influential in Etruria^d. Latinsi. Indo-Europeans migrated into west coast4. Villanovan Culture (900-700 BCE)a. Burial practices: (“Urnfield” culture)b. Cremation w/ remains buried in biconical urns or models of hutsc. Settled agricultural communityi. Traction plowii. Iron toolsd. Pre-Etruscans?5. Greeks in Magna Graecia (Great Greece)a. Greek colonies beginning in 8th BCEi. Population growth in Greeceii. Mimicked Greek city-state organizationb. What is a city-statei. Settlement based around an urban communityii. Politically and militarily autonomousiii. Defined urban core (usually with fortification of wall)c. Important city-statesi. Selinus, Gela and Syracuse in Sicilyii. Posidonia (Paestum), Sybaris, Croton, Metapontum, and Taras (Tarentum) in S. Italyd. Syracuse most powerfuli. Founded by Greek city-state of Corinth in 734 BCEii. Controlled most of Sicilyiii. Came into conflict with Carthagee. Posidonia (Paestum)i. Best preserved Greek templesii. Council house (bouleterion)iii. Tomb of the Diveriv. Greek banqueting scene (Symposium)6. The Etruscansa. More Namesi. Tyrenoi (Tyrrhenians): Greeksii. Etrusci (Etruscan): Romansb. Important sitesi. Cerveteri (caere), Veii, Tarquiniac. City-state culture (700 BCE)i. Hill-top townsii. Loose federation (Etruscan League)iii. Monarchiesd. Common Culturei. Languageii. Socail structures (elites, servile)iii. Religion7. Sources for Etruscan Culturea. Textuali. Etruscan1. Language/Script (alphabetic)2. 13,000 inscriptions, mostly short textsb. Etruscan Inscriptions8. Origin of Etruscan Culturea. Autochthonous Origini. Dionysius of Halikarnassus1. They lived there and never moved thereb. Anatolian (Lydian) Origini. Herodotus1. Came from Anatolia 9. Etruscan Metalwork10. “Bucchero” Potterya. Black burnished pottery – glossy finishb. Incised decorationc. Greek influences in shapesd. Imitating metal prototypese. Elite drinking vessels used in banquets11. Etruscan Templesa. Podium templesb. Frontal – Placed at end of enclosurec. Wood with terracotta decoration12. Etruscan Cemeteriesa. Cemetery at Cerveteri (ancient Caere)b. (hobbit village)c. Tomb of the Reliefsi. Recreated a Greek Symposium in the tombd. Etruscan Sarcophagii. Stone coffinsii. Elaborately carvediii. Included women in their symposiumse. Tomb of the Shipi. Shows a boat bringing wine to the symposium13. Etruscan Religiona. Polytheisticb. Divine will manifested in every aspect of natural worldc. Famous for divinationi. Haruspex – priests who read animal entrailsii. Bronze Liver of Piacenza14. Livy as a Source for the History of Early Romea. Textual Evidencei. No extensive histories earlier than 50 BCEii. Livy (59 BCE – 17 AD/CE)1. History of Rome from origins to 9 BCE2. Writing centuries after founding Rome3. Not factually reliable for early periods4. Reflection of what Late Republican/Early Empire believed about their early historyiii. Livy’s Purpose for Writing1. Recount the history of Rome from its earliest beginnings2. Historical, not poetic, account15. Mytho-Legendary Accounta. Aeneas of Troy (Vergi’s Aeneid)i. Trojan prince; fought in Trojan Warii. Fled troy; settled in Italyiii. Alliance with King Latinumiv. Founder of Lavinium in Latiumb. Arrival in Latium; alliance with King Latinusi. Two Versions1. Aeneas conquers Lainus in War2. Latinus parlays with Aeneasii. Marriage to Lavinia, daughter of King Latinusc. War with Turnus – Lavinia promised to himd. Ascanius, son of Aeneasi. Founded Alba Longaii. King Numitor and brother Aemuliusiii. Aemulius overthrew Numitoriv. Rape oh Rhea Silvia by Mars, god of warv. Rhea gives birth to twin sons, Romulus and Remuse. Romulus and Remus (Livy)i. Twin sons oh Rhea Silviaii. Nursed by she-wolfiii. Raised by Faustulus, royal herdsmaniv. Recognition by Numitorv. Overthrow Aemuliusvi. Foundation of Rome (753 BCE)1. Dispute: Who would be king and give their name to the new town2. Declaration by augury – interpret will of gods through flight of birds 3. Romulus kills Remus4. Don’t jump over Romulus’ walls f. The Rape of the Sabine Womeni. Romulus’ new city needs women1. First attempt: diplomacy2. Second attempt: deception and violence 3. Romans win over Sabine wives4. War between the Romans and Sabinesa. Interference of wives16. Livy’s Accounta. How does Livy’s account inform us about Roman’s and their view of their nation’s origin?b. Role of important men / story of kingsc. Violent beginningsi. Warfare between Aeneas and Turnus – broken treatyii. Aemulius kills nephewsiii. Rape of Rhea Silviaiv. Romulus kills Remusv. Rape of Sabine Womenvi. War between Romans and Sabines17. Livy vs. Archeologya. How does Livy’s account inform archaeological evidence?b. Names of peoples of Italy: Latins, Etruscans, Sabinesc. Indications of population growthi. Foundation of Alba Longaii. Foundation of Romed. Traditional Foundation Date of Rome – 753

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