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UB PGY 451LEC - Exam 4

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1. In a normal, stable individual, the amount of sodium in 24h of urine depends on:a. Sodium intakeb. Sodium concentration in plasmac. Sodium concentration in the renal filtrate (Bowman’s Capsule)d. Body weight2. If the concentration of water in urine is the same as that inside cells in our body, the free water clearance of that urine is said to be:a. Positiveb. Negativec. Zerod. Cannot be determined3. In a 24-hour period, the amount of water excreted by the kidneys is approximately the same as:a. The amount of water ingestedb. The amount of water in the ECFc. The amount of water in the ICFd. The amount of water that filters as GFR 4. In a normal, stable individual eating 150 millimoles Na/Day and 100 millimoles K/Day, the 24-hour average concentration of water in urine is approximately the same as:a. The concentration of water in Bowman’s Capsuleb. The concentration of water in the ECFc. The concentration of water in the ICFd. None of the above 5. In an individual with overnight weight loss of 2 Kg, the following changes are expected:a. Decrease of ICF volumeb. Decrease of ECF volumec. Decrease urine outputd. All of the above6. The difference in the renal excretion of sodium vs glucose is:a. Within 1 % of the initial load filtered to Bowman’s Capsuleb. Within 10% of the initial load filtered to Bowman’s Capsulec. 100% of the initial filtered load- meaning one is fully absorbed and one fully secretedd. None of the above7. In extreme temperature conditions (hot or cold), excessive sweat or respiratory water losses can reach more than 1000ml/Day. Such losses are expected to:a. Reduce renal plasma flowb. Reduce urinary excretionc. Reduce natriuresisd. Reduce diuresise. All of the above8. An increase in renal plasma flow without an increase in GFR is likely compensated for by:a. Constriction of afferent arterioleb. Constriction of the efferent arteriolec. Relaxation of the afferent arterioled. Increase of filtration fraction9. An increase in renal plasma flow without an increase in GFR will likely result in:a. Diuresisb. Antidiuresisc. Antinatriuresisd. No Change of urine output10. Increased fractional excretion of a molecule without a change in GFR or its plasma concentrationis likely due to:a. Increased filtered amounts of this moleculeb. Decreased filtered amounts of this moleculec. Decreased renal epithelial absorption of this moleculed. Increased renal epithelial absorption of this molecule11. Based on magnitude of NaCl absorption, the segment of the nephron that utilizes the least ATP isexpected to be the:a. Proximal tubuleb. Distal tubulec. Collecting duct12. Diuretics increase the amounts of water and sodium in urine. What can be said about their effecton renal oxygen consumption?a. They decrease oxygen consumptionb. They increase oxygen consumptionc. They do not change oxygen consumption13. An acute (short term- days) increased of plasma creatinine levels can be explained by the following:a. Decrease RPFb. Decrease GFRc. Decrease plasma volumed. Decrease urine outpute. All of the above14. The majority of regulation of urine output depends on:a. Small changes of glomerular hydrostatic pressureb. Small changes of plasma volumec. Small changes of total body waterd. Small changes of plasma osmolaritye. All of the above15. True or False. The absorption of water in the nephron is coupled to the movement of another molecule whose concentration is about 300 times less than water.a. Trueb. False16. The amount of sodium chloride in 0.5L of isotonic 300 mOsm solution is:a. 300 millimolesb. 150 millimolesc. 75 millimoles17. At both high and intermediate concentrations, angiotensin II causes antinatriuresis and antidiuresis by:a. Decreasing the clearance of sodiumb. Decreasing the absorption of sodiumc. Decreasing the plasma volumed. Decreasing the oral intake of water18. The concentration of Na and K in a 24hr urine collection are the same. Given the plasma [Na] and [K], this indicates that (in this period):a. Clearance sodium > Clearance potassiumb. Clearance sodium = Clearance of potassiumc. Clearance sodium < Clearance potassium19. The main difference between sodium chloride filtration from the glomerular capillaries to Bowman’s Capsule vs that with absorption from nephron lumen to peritubular capillaries is:a. The absorptive pathway is not freely permeable to sodium chlorideb. The absorptive pathway is not affected by capillary hydrostatic pressurec. The absorptive pathway is not affected by capillary oncotic pressured. There are no differences- sodium chloride is freely permeable across both pathways20. You suspect that the calculation of renal clearance of para-aminohippurate is affected by the process of renal transport saturation of PAH. As a result, you expect that:a. GFR is underestimatedb. GFR is overestimatedc. RPF is underestimatedd. RPF is overestimated21. Absorption of filtered molecules in the proximal tubule depends on the following:a. Basolateral Na/K ATPaseb. Sodium permeability across the luminal membranec. Epithelial junctional sodium permeabilityd. Osmotic coupling of sodium chloride and watere. All of the above22. Proximal tubule balance (or increased PT absorption when filtration fraction increases leading to an increase of GFR) depends on:a. Increased AngIIb. Increased peritubular capillary flowc. Increased peritubular capillary absorptiond. Increased osmolarity of fluid in the PT23. Antidiuresis and production of high osmolarity urine depends on:a. Increased water permeability of the proximal tubuleb. Increased water permeability of the descending loopc. Increased water permeability of the peritubular capillariesd. Increased water permeability of the collecting duct24. Which of the following best applies to the ability of diuretics to decrease blood pressure?a. They stimulate sodium absorptionb. They stimulate sodium excretionc. They stimulate water absorptiond. They stimulate ADHe. They stimulate the RAS25. The ability to reduce both volume and water concentration of urine depends on the following:a. Countercurrent flow between the descending and ascending loop of Henleb. Countercurrent flow between the vasa recta and the loop of Henlec. High interstitial osmolarity in the medullad. Recycling of urea in the nephrone. All of the


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