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EMU AHPR 200 - Chapter 5-Muscles and Tendons

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Chapter 5: Muscles and TendonsChapter 5: Muscles and TendonsTypes of Muscle:- Skeletal-Contract on demand to provide posture and locomotion- Cardiac-Contract without conscious thought; power’s the heart contractions.- Smooth-Contract without conscious thought; power’s the movement of food through the digestive system via peristalsis.Functions of Skeletal Muscle:- Skeletal muscles, which are attached to one or more bones, are also called voluntary muscles. This means that you have conscious control of your muscles, which perform your movements. Each muscle consists of bundles of muscle cells (often called fibers because of their length), blood vessels, and nerves. Connective tissue sheets hold your muscle fibers together and connect the muscles to your bones. 1. Movement: All skeletal muscles are attached to bones so when a muscle contracts, your bones move, too. This allows you to walk, run, and work with your hands. 2. Posture: The tone of your skeletal muscles holds you straight when sitting, standing, or moving. 3. Body Heat: When skeletal muscles contract, they produce the heat needed to maintain your body temp.4. Respiration: Skeletal muscles move the chest wall as you breathe.5. Communication: Skeletal muscles enable you to speak, write, type, gesture, and smile. AbbreviationsADL: Activities of Daily LivingDC: Doctor of ChiropracticDO: Doctor of OsteopathyOT: Occupational TherapyPT: Physical TherapyROM: Range of MotionMD: Doctor of MedicineWord Analysis & DefinitionActive: activ- -ity ; Causing action or change; the state of being activeContract: con- -tract ; Draw together or shortenFiber: A strand or filamentMultidisciplinary: multi- -disciplin- -ary; Involving health care providers from more than one professionMuscle: a tissue consisting of cells that can contractPassive: Not active Peristalsis: peri- -stalsis ; Waves of alternate constriction and relaxation in a tubeSkeletal: skelet- -al ; Pertaining to the skeletonTone: Tension present in resting musclesVoluntary Muscle: volunt- -ary ; Muscle that is under the control of the willStructure of Skeletal Muscle- Skeletal muscle fibers are narrow and measure up to 1.5 inches long. Bundles of these fibers create separate muscles, which are held in place by fascia, a thick layer of connective tissue. Fascia extends beyond the muscle to form a tendon, which attaches to a bone’s periosteum at the origin and insertion of the muscle.- Because skeletal muscle fibers contain striations (alternating light and dark bands of protein filaments responsible for muscle contraction), skeletal muscle can also be called striated muscle.- You have the same number of muscle fibers as an adult that you had in late childhood. Exercise and/or weightlifting will enlarge (hypertrophy) your muscles, increasing the thickness of your muscle fibers. If you neglect these muscles, they will shrink (atrophy).Disorders of Skeletal MusclesMuscle Soreness: Can result from vigorous exercise, particularly if your muscles are not used to it. Exercise increases the lactic acid in your muscle fibers, causing inflammation, and produces soreness in the muscles and nearby connective tissue.Muscle Cramps: Sudden, short, painful contractions of a muscle or group of muscles. The cause of these cramps is unknown. A poor diet that leads to low blood potassium, calcium, and magnesium levels; caffeine and tobacco use; and reduced blood supply may contribute to muscle cramps. There are no effective medications available. Muscle Strains: Range from a simple stretch to a partial or complete tear in the muscle, tendon,or muscle-tendon combination. Most strains heal with RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation), followed by basic exercises to relieve pain and restore mobility. A complete tear may require surgery. Sprain: A stretch or tear of a ligament, often in the ankle, knee, or wrist, and is also treated withRICE. Anabolic Steroids: Related to testosterone but altered to make skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Used illegally in many sports to boost muscle strength, steroids have noticeable, often irreversible side effects. These include stunted growth in adolescents, shrinking testes and reduced sperm counts, masculinization of women’s bodies and voices, delusions, and paranoid jealousy. Long-term effects may be increased risk of heart attack and stroke, kidney failure, and liver tumors. Fibromyalgia: Affects muscles and tendons all over the body, causing chronic pain, fatigue, and depression. It’s cause is unknown and there are currently no lab tests for it. The only treatment options are pain management, physiotherapy, and stress reduction.AbbreviationsNSAID: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugRICE: Rest, Ice, Compression, and ElevationWord Analysis and DefinitionAtrophy: a- -trophy ; The wasting away or diminished volume of tissue, an organ, or a body part increase in size, but not in number, of an individual tissue element.Hypertrophy: hyper- -trophy Fascia: Sheet of fibrous connective tissueFibromyalgia: fibr- -o- -my- -algia ; Pain in the muscle fibersSprain: A wrench or tear in a ligamentStrain: Overstretch or tear in a muscle or tendonTendinitis: tendin- -itis ; Fibrous band that connects muscle to bone. Inflammation of a tendonMuscles and Tendons of the Shoulder Girdle, Trunk, and Upper Limb- Your pectoral (shoulder) girdle connects your axial skeleton to your upper limbs & helps you to move these limbs. Without your shoulder girdle, you wouldn’t be able to throw a ball, drive a car, or reach that top shelf of your closet or kitchen cabinet. In fact, you wouldn’t be able to move your upper limbs.- The muscles and tendons in your shoulder girdle get plenty of use. Four muscles that originate on your scapula wrap around the shoulder joint and fuse together. This fusion forms one large tendon (the rotator cuf), which is inserted into the humerus. Your rotator cuff keeps the ball of the humerus tightly in the scapula’s socket and provides thekind of strength needed by baseball pitchers.Common Disorders of the Shoulder Girdle- Rotator Cuf Tears-(a frequent injury to the shoulder girdle) are caused by wear and tear from overuse in work situations or in certain sports, such as baseball, football, and golf. These tears can be partial or complete.- Tendonitis: of the shoulder joint is cause when the rotator cuff and/or biceps tendon becomes inflamed from overuse. - Bursitis: inflammation of the lubricating sac of the rotator cuff, can also be produced by


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