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Farmingdale PCM 325 - Health and Disease

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Difference between homeostasis and diseaseAIDSInflammationImmunoglobulinsReferencesASSIGNMENT 1 1Assignment 1Jennifer MorrisseyAspen UniversityPrinciples of Health and Disease HCA 205Dr. Zahid SiddiquiOctober 19, 2020ASSIGNMENT 1 2Assignment 1Difference between homeostasis and diseaseHomeostasis is defined as the state of steady/balanced internal, physical, and chemical conditions (Wikipedia, 2019). Disease is defined as any harmful deviation from the normal structural or functional state of an organism, generally associated with certain signs and symptoms and differing in nature from physical injury (Wikipedia, 2019). When you see these two definitions together you can ascertain that they are essentially opposites of one another. While one is steady and balanced, the other is a harmful deviation from that steady state. There are inherit body conditions that help us to maintain this homeostatic state. Negative and positive feedback loops would be an example of this. Temperature regulation, pH levels, glucose levels etc. are other examples of internal mechanisms that are contributing to homeostasis. Chronic disease is defined as conditions that last 1 year or more and require ongoing medical attention or limit activities of daily living or both (CDC, 2019) Alternatively, an acute disease is defined as a disease that tends to have a very quick onset and typically lasts for only a brief period (CDC, 2019). With some types of diseases, you can have acute exacerbations within the disease process,however. Take asthma for example, while asthma is considered a chronic disease, a child can have an acute asthma attack from time to time. Not all diseases are curable, but many can be managed with regular medical treatments. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic inherited fatal geneticdisorder. There is no cure for CF. Life expectancy depends on many factors but one of the main factors is the management of the disease and its complications. Having a blood glucose that rarely returns to normal is concerning for many reasons. You absorb sugar from food and beverages into your bloodstream, where insulin (a hormone from your pancreas) helps it gets into your cells to provide energy (Mayo Clinic, 2019). As a “backup”, your liver also makes andASSIGNMENT 1 3stores its own glucose to help keep your blood sugar within a normal range. If your body isn’t releasing enough insulin from the pancreas or the cellular membrane has changed so that it doesn’t allow the sugar to go across that membrane to be utilized for energy, that can be an indication of type 2 diabetes. The regulation of blood glucose levels is an example of a negative feedback loop that the body relies on to maintain homeostasis (Amerman, 2019). AIDSAids is considered a syndrome and not a disease because a syndrome is defined as a group of symptoms, signs, physical and physiological disturbances that are due to a common cause. AIDS is a complex of diseases and symptoms which develop due to failure of the body to fight off even minor infections such as a cold (Wikipedia, 2019). HIV can be transmitted only in certain body fluids from a person who has HIV. These fluids are blood, semen, pre-seminal fluids, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. To reduce your risk of HIV, use condoms correctly every time you have sex. Don't inject drugs. Reduce your number of sexual partners so that you will lower your chances of have a partner that could transmit HIV to you. If partaking inoral sex, use a dental dam or condom to reduce risk of transmission. HIV’s attack on helper T cells is devastating to the entire immune system because of the work that the T cells do. Helper Tcells bind with cytotoxic T cells to regulate destruction of infected cells. HIV specifically targets and attacks the helper T cells and without them the body can’t bind with or call upon the cytotoxic T cells for destruction of infected cells. This means that the infected cells can rapidly multiply and produce massive infections very quickly without being eradicated by the T cells. Therefore, people are said to die from secondary infections or complications from AIDS/HIV rather than the virus itself. The HIV virus in itself causes changes to the immunology of theASSIGNMENT 1 4individual making them more susceptible to infections; therefore, the infection would be cause ofdeath secondary to HIV/AIDs. InflammationInflammation is a nonspecific body defense to invasion or injury and can be started quickly by almost any event, regardless of where it occurs or what causes it (Workman, D.I.M. L., 2018). The six agents responsible for being able to stimulate an inflammatory response are pathogens, physical agents, chemicals, inappropriate immunological responses, tissue death, virus and bacteria. Viruses can stimulate inflammation by entering and destroying cells. Bacteria release endotoxins that can and do initiate inflammation. Physical agents such as corrosive materials, burns, frostbite and radiation can initiate the immune response as a body’s defense mechanism is triggered. Autoimmune reactions where chronic inflammation is triggered by the body’s own immune response against its own tissues. Inappropriate immune responses where a person’s body creates an allergy or hypersensitivity to an environmental agent. Inflammation canalso result when tissues die from a lack of oxygen or nutrients, a situation that often is caused by loss of blood flow to the area (ischemia) or tissue death (necrosis) (Workman, D.I.M. L., 2018). Typically, when the inflammatory cascade has been initiated by some sort of trigger, there are four cardinal symptoms noted. Redness caused by dilation of small blood vessels in the area of injury. Heat or warmth from increased blood flow to that area as well. Swelling or edema, causedby accumulation of fluid outside the blood vessels and pain from the distortion of tissues caused by the edema. Pain can also be caused by chemical mediators like bradykinin and serotonin. Another symptom of inflammation that can happen, especially when the inflammation is in a joint, is immobility. Due to the pain or swelling that is occurring in the joint, a person is moreASSIGNMENT 1 5inclined to reduce movement of said joint resulting in immobility. In the case of rheumatoid arthritis, all of the cardinal symptoms are present, even the immobility. Rheumatoid arthritis is anautoimmune disease where there is chronic progressive inflammation in the joints which


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