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IUPUI BIOL 105 - BIOL 105 Lecture Exam 2 Review

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BIOL 105 Lecture Exam 2 Review:Chapter 7:State the first and second laws of thermodynamics. How do they apply to living systems? Define Kinetic Energy. When is an object exhibiting kinetic energy?Define Potential Energy. When is an object exhibiting potential energy? Define endergonic reactions. Provide at least one example.Define exergonic reactions. Provide at least one example. What is feedback inhibition? How does it apply to living organisms?What are allosteric regulators? Chapter 8:List the steps of Respiration.What are the products of (and where do they take place in the cell)? :i. Glycolysisii. Pyruvate Oxidationiii. Citric Acid Cycleiv. Electron Transport chain(HINT: Draw out the entire pathway with all the reactants and products, this includes ATP, NADHand FADH2. What is oxidized? What is reduced? Remember that at the end of glycolysis 2 product molecules are formed and so on). Distinguish between enthalpy and entropy.Chapter 9List the steps of Photosynthesis.What happens during the light reaction-include products? Why is it important?What happens during the Calvin Cycle-include products? Why is chlorophyll important for photosynthesis? Which part of chlorophyll is vital for photosynthesis?1Chapter 10List the steps of Mitosis. (HINT: Draw out all the stages and identify all the structures that are present e.g.: Chromosomes, spindle fibers or mitotic spindle, kinetochore, centromeres, centrioles). List the steps of Meiosis. What are homologous chromosomes? When does crossing over take place? What is the name of the connection between homologous chromosomes that are crossing over? Which meiotic stage is in fact the reduction division (meiosis I or meiosis II)? List the stages in the cell cycle (stages in interphase, G0, etc…). What are check points and wheredo they occur in the cell cycle? Why are the checkpoints important? Chapter 11Distinguish between a genotype and a phenotype.Know how to label gametes of Homozygous (BB or bb) and Heterozygous (Bb) parents. Know how to calculate probabilities of outcomes in potential offspring when parents are heterozygous and/or homozygous for that trait.Know how to calculate recombination frequencies from a given data set. Chapter 12Understand DNA complementarity. Distinguish DNA replication between prokaryotes and eukaryotesList the steps of DNA replication in eukaryotes (include all enzymes that play a role). 2What are Okazaki Fragments? How are they involved in DNA replication?Chapter 6List the steps in the signaling pathway.What are first and second messengers? Know the important molecules in signal transduction and the role they play in a living system (eg. Calmodulin, GABA).

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