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UT Arlington BIOL 1442 - Exam 1

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Absorptive ProtistsFungus-like ex. "molds"According to the phylogeny presented in chapter 28, whichprotists are in the same eukaryotic supergroup as land plants: green algae dinoflagellates red algaegreen and red algaeAcoelomatetriploblastic animals lacking body cavity flatworms (trematodes)Adaptations on terrestrial land cuticles on leavesAdvantages of terrestrial habitatNo competition Sunlight easily penetrates air (vs. water) No diseases/herbivores(yet) CO2/gas exchangeAlgae defn + examplesPlant-like protist (Photosynthetic, autotrophic eukaryote that is not anembryophyte land plant) Lichen, dinoflagellates, nori seaweed, kelp, diatomsAll fungi are heterotrophicAlternation of GenerationsAlternate between multicellular haploidand diploid formsAlternation of Generations present inall land plants and some protists (esp.various algae)Alveolates Have tiny air sacs beneath membraneAmoebozoans Thick, wide lobe-shaped pseudopodiaamphibian pathogen (mycosis):chytridae fungus with flagellated sporesamphioxus lanceletsAncestor of Land Plants belonged to Green Algae (specifically charophytes)Angiosperm reproduction flowers and fruitsAngiosperms flowering plants (ovules)Animal kingdomAll share common ancestor Sponges basal/monophyletic Eumetazoa = true tissue clade Most animals bilateria Three major clades: bilaterian, invertebrates, vertebratesAnimal reprodutionsexually diploid stage predominant Haploid gametes, diploid zygoteAnimalsmulticellular heterotrophic eukaryotic develop from embryonic layers No cell wallsAnnelidasegmented worms with closedcirculatory systemsants, beetles, flies, true bugs:hexapoda segments = now 3 body regionApicomplexansAlveolate Parasites with complex life cycles - may require two hosts Specialized tips (apex) allowing parasite to invade host cell Nonphotosynthetic plastidApicomplex Life Cycle1. Infected mosquito bites person, injecting Plasmodium sporozoites in its saliva 2. Sporozoites enter liver cells; undergo multiple divisions to become merozoites that can penetratered blood cells 3. Morozoites divide asexually inside RBC; break out causing chills and fever; infect other RBCs 4. Some merozoites form gametocytes 5. Different mosquite bites person, infected with gametocytes 6. Mosquito forms more infected gametophytes and fertilize 7. Oocyst forms, bursts in mosquito gut, infect mosquito bitesarchaean extremophile adapted to livein very hot geothermal springsThermus aquaticusArthropods jointed appendagesAscisaclike structures; produce spores AscomycetesAscomycetesMost abundant Sexual spores borne internally insacs Also produce asexual sporesascomycetes "sac fungi"Diverse habitats produce spores in fruiting bodiesBasidiomycetesElaborate fruiting body containing manybasidia that produce sexual sporesBasidiomycetes "club fungi"have short diploid life stage spores in gillsBilateral symmetryAnimals Front/back and top/bottomBiologists thing that endosymbiosis gaverise to mitochondria before plastidspartly becauseAll eukaryotes have mitochondria (ortheir remnants), whereas manyeukaryotes do not have plastidsBioluminescent prokaryote, mutualisticassociation with cephalopod molluskVibrio fischeriBivalve molluscssuspension feeders two siphons (in and out) no head orradulaBody cavity (coelom)fluid-filled space separating digestivetract from outer body wallBody PlanAnimals set of traits integrated into a functionalwholeBrown AlgaeSeaweed Multicellular Resemble plants (convergent evolution/analogous)Bryophyte plant with neither vessels norseedsmossBryophytesGametophytes Form ground hugging carpets Only a few cells thick sperm dispersal by water and spore dispersal by windBryophyte sporophyteDependent on parent and gametophytefor nutrientsCaenorhabditis elegansabundant free-living microscopic soilwormsCambrian explosion535-525 mya New adaptation for predator/prey Increase in atomspheric oxygen (higher metabolic rates, largerbodies) Hox gemes (evolution of new body forms)Carboniferous forest300 mya Seedless vascular plants dominated Now mined as coalcause red tides, bioluminescentbioindicatorsdinoflagellatesCell/structure associated with ASEXUALreproduction of fungiconidophoresCellular Slime MoldAmoebozoan Single cells merge together under stress to feed Forms one large "multicellular" moldcephalization(anterior) concentration of sensory equipment central nervous systemCephalopod molluscspredators tentacles for grasping beak to inject toxin chromatophores for color change only molluscs with closed circulatory systemCercozoansRhizarian thin pseudopods used to move andfeedCharacteristic of plants absent in closestrelatives, the charophyte algaeAlternation of generationsCharacteristics that distinguishgymnosperms and angiosperms fromother plantsDependent gametophytes Ovules Pollencheliceriform arthropods have pinscers or fancschoanoflagellates:unicellular protists closest relatives to animalsChytridiomycosis fungal pathogen -amphibian declinesChytridsFlagellated spores Globular fruiting body Multicellular branched bodiesCiliatesAlveolate Use cilia to help move and feed Have a macro and a micro nucleicleavagesuccession of mitotic cell divisionswithout cell growth in between leads to blastula stage (hollow ball)closest relatives of fungi thought to be animals"club fungi":basidiomycota mushroom fruiting bodycnidariansRadial symmetry, gastrovascular cavity Diploblastic (two body layers)Cnidocytechidarians coiled like a spring injects/threats prey w/ toxinCoelomateanimals with "true" coelom (from mesoderm) Molluscs, annelids, arthropods, verebrates,etccoelomatesAn animal that possesses a true coelom(a body cavity lined by tissuecompletely derived from mesoderm).Coevolutionwhen two different species reciprocally influence each other'sadaptations through many generations of ecological interactions (plants get genetic variation from bees - bees get nutritionalreward)Conifer life cycleTree is sporophyte Cones are male or female Haploid gametophytes produced via meiosis Pollen travels to ovule seed germinates in favorable conditions Diploid embryo becomes new tree (sporophyte) via mitosisConifersMajority of gymnosperms Pines, firs, redwoods Most diverseconifers:gymnosperms naked seeds; strobilicrabs, lobsters, shrimp:decapod crustaceans antennae (two pairs)craniateschordates with a head hagfishes cartilage skullCtenophora barbed jelliescuttlefish, octopus, squid:cephalopod molluscs tentacles, beak, reduced shellDeuterstomes blastopore becomes anus firstDiatomsStramenopile Algae with


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