TAMU PSYC 323 - PSYC 323 Day 8 2.5.21

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PSYC 323 Day 8 2.521Information Processing (IP) approach - Views development as continuous in nature – development occurs gradually and at a steady pace- Models the brain after computers- Human though is broken down into different capacities such as attention and memory- Processes occur simultaneously -Attention and sensory memory- Information processing begins when stimulus information enters the senseso Also called sensory memory or sensory store- Much of what we perceive never goes past this stageo We only process information which is the focus of our attention - Selective attention – ability to “screen out” unwanted information and focus attention on target task/object- Divided attention – dividing your attention across more than one task simultaneously - You are constantly making decisions about what stimuli in your environment to focus your attention Short term memory - Short term memory (STM) is memory for information that is currently the focus of your attentiono Limited capacity: approximately y items (+ or – 2)o Items can be “chucked” to improve capacity o Time limited: items stay in short term memory for around 30 seconds unless continuously working on that information - One aspect of STM deals with the capacity of STM/storage of new information o Storage/capacity o E.g., ask students to remember as many items as they can from a list- Second aspect of STM is working memory where you keep and actively work on informationo “the workbench”o Information in working memory may be ne information or information recalled from long term memoryo Highly correlated with intelligence Long term memoryPSYC 323 Day 8 2.521- Long term memory (LTM) is memory that is committed to longer term storage so that you can draw on it again at a later timeo Unlimited capacity o Information retained indefinitely - Adolescents begin to make use of mnemonic devices (memory strategies)o E.g., mnemonic names (lobes of the brain – FPOT)- Past experiences provide “hooks” for us to hang new memories ontoo These hooks allow us to retrieve information easiero More experiences = more hooks to hand information = faster processing o Activate a chain of memories to retrieve information that might otherwise be difficult to access Other aspects of information processing- Processing speed – how quickly we can process informationo E.g., video games in adolescence - Executive functioning – ability to control and manage cognitive processeso Processes include working memory, attention, impulse control, emotional control, organization o Allows you to combine process into a plan of action and follow through- Automaticity – how much cognitive effort needs to be devoted to processing informationo Process becomes automatic after repeated experienceso More automatic task is, faster you can complete it and less working memory capacity requiredo Divided attention tasksLimitations to information processing approach- A reductionist approach?o Lose sight of the bigger pictureo IP is modeled after computers, but our brains are not computerso Emotion, self-reflection, self-awareness are not taken into account with the IP approacho Adolescents display poorer reasoning regarding emotionally charged subjects than do adults Critical thinking- Critical thinking involveso Interpreting incoming informationo Relating it to other information from out experiences - Development of critical thinking does not occur automatically; it is a skill that we develop over a lifetimeo Goal of education system, particularly upper level educationo Smaller classes, discourse between students and teachers - Capacity for critical thinking increases during adolescence o More knowledge/experiences to draw fromo Our ability to analyze situations from multiple perspectives and incorporate different types of information increasesPSYC 323 Day 8 2.521o More metacognitive strategies available to help us learnDecision making- Adolescent decision makingo Adolescents are oftentimes held to different standards Restrictions on consent Decisions about medical treatment Not tried as adults in the court systemo Late adolescents and adults are similar in terms of basic cognitive ability E.g., processing speed, working memory, analytic abilityo Adolescents appear to be more influenced by psychosocial factors in decision making How will peers view me? How will this affect how the world views me? Emotional state during time of decision making Theory of mind and social cognition - Social world begins to expand during adolescence - Social cognition start to become more complex o The way we think about other people, social relationships, and social institutions o Perspective taking and egocentrismPerspective taking in adolescence - We begin to develop a more complex theory of mindo The ability to attribute mental states to one’s self and other Thoughts, feelings, beliefso Realize other people have a mental life different from my owno Related to concept of perspective takingo Perspective talking is the ability to understand thoughts and feelings of others- Improvements in perspective taking as we grow into adolescence - Starts to develop around age 6, improve through adolescence/emerging adulthood- Early adolescence (around 10 or 11 years) we can start engaging in mutual perspective takingo We recognize that other people are also aware that we all have different perspectives- Perspective taking abilities related to popularity among peers and success at making new friendso

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TAMU PSYC 323 - PSYC 323 Day 8 2.5.21

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