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Psychology 240, Fall 2019Take-Home Assignment #1Krupa Patel Section 029GSI: Madison Fansher1A) According to Donder’s subtractive method, the duration of the decision stage is 180 milliseconds.1B) This is supported by the subtractive method formula of subtracting the reaction time of the detection task (e.g. a simple raise your hand when you see a circle) from the reaction time of the choice task (e.g. raise your right hand when you see a circle, raise your left hand when you see a square). This would tell you “how long” it took to make the choice/decision (e.g. in this case being whether to raise your left or right hand).1C) The assumption being violated is the “Assumption of additivity.” This suggests that stages are strictly serial; one stage doesn’t start processing until the previous stage finishes. Furthermore, this assumption is violated in this example by stages operating in parallel in how the decision stage starts to process information before the detection stage has finished processing.1D) Your estimated decision-stage duration would be too short compared to the true value. This is because if there is overlap, so that the decision stage starts before the detection stage has completely finished, you would underestimate the duration of the decision stage. The overlap indicates the true value would actually be longer than what you expected. 2A) The distal stimulus is the railroad tracks as they are. This the “actual” physical object in the environment depicted in the picture.2B) The image on the retina or the proximal stimulus is that the railroad lines appear to converge at a point on the horizon in the image. At the angle this picture is taken, this is the image that is reflected by light into our retina.2C) This is an example of a paradoxical correspondence because the proximal stimulus (converging railroad tracks) does not correspond to the distal stimulus, however, the perceptual experience does. This is an example of shape constancy. We know that the railroad tracks are, in fact, truly parallel despite the fact that looking at the picture suggests that they meet.2D) The dorsal stream would be the most involved in perceiving distance or spatial location. Thisis because this stream is able to make spatial relationships among objects and the visual guidancetoward them (“where” an object is), in this case allowing you to perceive the distance between you and the building.3A) “Teaching to Learn” is the ultimate method that utilizes the two Desirable Difficulties of Generation and Testing. This situation exemplifies the Generation Effect by requiring you to recall material and self-generate it in order to teach someone else (you have to remember it yourself in order to present it, thus, strengthening your memory). This situation exemplifies Testing because you must create practice quizzes/test for someone else on the material, thus, you end up self-testing and giving yourself retrieval practice in the process. Studying in order to teach, therefore, allows for better memory than simply studying for a test.3B) Metacognition is defined as one's awareness of and ability to regulate one's own thinking. “Teaching to Learn” is a study technique that gives you retrieval practice, so you’re aware of what you know already and what you need to study. Furthermore, if you’re able to recallthat information well enough to teach someone else, you’re able to know what you truly know instead of mistaking familiarity (reading over notes again and again) as knowledge.3C) These techniques are called “Desirable Difficulties” because they consist of strategies you can utilize that make learning seem more unpleasant (hence, difficult), but actually lead to better learning (hence, desirable). They allow for long-term retention and better recall. However, you’ll make more mistakes during studying and think you’re not learning as much, which is why they are perceived as difficult. 3D) A typical studying technique students use that is actually less desirable is massed fashion or block studying. This is because it feels better to study a topic all at once (all Math) and students feel that they have learned more. However, the ease of practicing in the massed condition is actually problematic because you don’t need to retrieve things that you have been studying recently, leading to poorer recognition memory performance. Interleaved studying is the better technique because you have to recall the material from memory each time you engage with the material in a topic. 4A) Interleaving is the principle of interleaving separate topics when studying in order to practicethe process of retrieving things from memory. This improves long-term learning better than blocking study of the same topic. I would organize my own study schedule by studying percentiles for 30 min., history of cognition for 30 min., histograms for 30 min., desirable difficulties for 30 min., organic compounds for 30 min., perception for 30 min., 3D orbital drawings for 30 min., pattern recognition for 30 min., etc. Spacing is the principle of studying over time through spread study sessions. This leads to better memory than a single blocked session of study. I plan on scheduling each Psych 240 topic (history, perception, visual system, desirable difficulties, pattern recognition) well in advancebefore the exam, giving each one a week to go over (e.g. Week 1 = history, Week 2 = desirable difficulties, etc.). This key is not to procrastinate and constantly be held accountable for spacing out study sessions. 4B) I’ve implemented the technique of interleaving in my Spanish and Statistics classes. Having an exam in both courses on the same day, I would study both topics on and off, switching it up every hour. This allowed me to recall both topics and gave me retrieval practice. Psychologically, this challenged me to reload my memory and train myself to bring back information and truly remember it all. Additionally, I made sure to exercise this technique a good three weeks before the exam, through spacing out my study sessions. 4C) I was able to succeed in this task and maintain my studying schedule by organizing my topicsand study hours through a planner. Furthermore, “assigning” study sessions to my calendar taught me self-discipline and held me accountable, so I didn’t procrastinate and cram/block studyat the last minute. This also allowed me to space out my studying on a monthly basis,

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