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Psychology 240, Fall 2019Take-Home Assignment #3Krupa Patel Section 029GSI: Madison FansherWord Count: 7811A) This is syntactic ambiguity because the words can be grouped together into more than one phrase structure. For example: (They are) (moving sidewalks) conveys sidewalks that move—likein an airport. (They are moving) (sidewalks) conveys the action of physically moving sidewalks.1B) No, the sentence “They are moving sidewalks” has 2 different surface phrase structure descriptions, because the words can be grouped in 2 different ways (one in which “moving sidewalks” is an adjective and a noun and another in which “are moving” is a verb). Surface phrase structure is the order in which the words are spoken. 1C) No, the sentence “They are moving sidewalks” has two different deep structures because there are two separate meanings. Deep structure refers to the underlying phrase structure from which meaning can be derived. In one meaning, the sidewalks are moving and in the other, sidewalk blocks are physically being moved. 2A) The speech errors are of the sound/phoneme linguistic unit and spoonerisms, also known as phonemic reversal errors. This is justified in example 1 by the “w” and “h” sound being reversed and the “w” and “r” being reversed in example 2. 2B) Error #2 is more frequent because it results in two words (“rage” and “wait”), not two non-words (“hage” and “wike”). The Lexical Bias Effect explains this, stating that phonemic errors occur more when they result in an actual word, than a non-word.2C) The speech editor aspect of Dell’s model explains this. It can only check to see if the utterance is a word; non-word errors are automatically filtered out because of interactive activation. Word errors receive top-down activation from word nodes compared to non-words, creating a positive feedback loop, making Error #2 more likely.3A) Card #1 and #4 3B) Card #1: Modus Ponens (valid)Card #2: Affirming the Consequent (invalid)Card #3: Denying the Antecedent (invalid)Card #4: Modus Tollens (valid)3C) Permission schema, because it refers to the reasoning that if a certain action (in this case, attending Froyotalk) is to be taken (permitted), then a certain condition must be met (in this case, having an UM ID card). 4A) Cognitive Stage: Learn the declarative knowledge about the skill of bowling. For example,you must commit the lingo (strike vs. spare) and scoring sheet rules (slash vs. X meaning in points) all to memory. Associative Stage: Practice bowling by working on your aim of the ball; see what works and what doesn’t. For example, through missing pins repeatedly by standing too far from the foul line, you’ll correct that error by standing closer. Autonomous/Automatic Stage: Continued practice produces automatic bowling motor skill. You can execute multiple spares and strikes yourself with less verbalization and less attention/consciousness. You’re able to aim the ball and get your arm into formation muchfaster. 5A) I’d choose the largest difference between my initial state and goal state: cooking a fancy dinner for my friends in time for the celebration. I would need to set it as a subgoal reducing that difference and find an operator and see if it applies.5B) I want to host an exciting New Year’s Eve celebration for my friends who are visiting from out of state. What’s the largest difference between what I have (current) and what I want (goal)? Cooking a fancy dinner in time. What changes cooking a fancy dinner? Buying groceries from the store. The store is closed on New Year’s Eve. What is needed to make it work? Shop one week in advance. How can I shop one week in advance? Set a phone reminder…so on.- Difference-reduction is a method to reduce the distance between your current stateand goal state through evaluating if a step will take you closer to the goal. Shopping one week in advance would reduce my current state of not having a dinner cooked in time. - Subgoaling is setting intermediate goals until the main goal is reached. You work backwards up to the current state, then work to reach the final goal one subgoal at a time. I am subgoaling to reach my final goal by finding operators to reduce the difference. - An operator is an action/tool used to move from the current state to the goal state. Setting a phone reminder to buy groceries in advance would move me from mycurrent state (overwhelmed and stressing about cooking a meal in time) to my goal state (having the perfect dinner ready).- Subgoaling is used to remove the obstacles that prevent you from applying an operator. You must then recognize the next most important difference between your current and goal state; develop another subgoal; then, an operator is applied to reduce that difference (difference-reduction

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