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Psychology 240, Fall 2019Take-Home Assignment #2Krupa Patel Section 029GSI: Madison FansherWord Count: 7401A) The observation that information presented at the beginning (e.g. first few words in a list) known as the “primacy effect,” and information presented at the end (e.g. end of the list) known as the “recency effect” is retained better than information presented in the middle. 1B) Patient H.M. had normal working memory, but impaired long-term memory. Thus, the primacy effect would be weaker in patient H.M. than in the healthy subjects, because it involves long-term memory (words at the beginning hang around longer and must be retrieved). On the other hand, H.M. and the healthy subjects would have similar recency effects because it involves the working memory (recent words are still accessible there).1C) The primacy effects between high and low working memory capacity subjects would be the same because their long-term memory ability does not differ (the beginning of the list reflects long-term memory). However, the recency effect would be weaker in the low working memory capacity subjects than in the high working memory ones, because the end of the list reflects beingable to recall recent words (accessible in the working memory).2A) It’s possible that the hippocampus or the medial temporal lobe part of the brain is damaged. My rationale is the example of patient H.M., who suffered from anterograde amnesia due to having his hippocampus removed. The cerebellum is most likely working normally, because procedural memory would still be intact (like in H.M.) and the cerebellum plays a role in motor control and learning skills. 2B) Mirror reading is an example of a task that I could teach S.P. to display that normal implicit memory (procedural learning) is still intact. He would learn the procedures and rules for reading mirror-reversed words. He would learn the task at a normal rate with practice, because he’s still able to retain his skill-learning ability (just can’t remember doing the task before).2C) Since retrograde amnesia is when the ability to retrieve information before the trauma is lost,I could ask S.P. a question about his childhood or an old memory such as, “What street did you grow up on?” or “When did you get your first car?” because these are questions an anterograde amnesic could answer, but a retrograde amnesic could not.3A) The first part of Baddeley’s model of working memory is composed of the phonological loopthat processes spoken language. The confusion happened because of the acoustic (phonological) similarity effect. Since the words sound similar (“John” and “Ron”), immediate ordered recall of the names was poorer.3B) Yes, the same confusion error is likely to have occurred whether you heard or saw the list. Baddeley’s model component of the visuospatial sketchpad would explain this error in the case ofviewing words, because rehearsal creates a phonological code for material that isn’t auditory (visual for example). Visual info is still converted to an auditory code (subvocalization), resultingin the same acoustic similarity effect.4A) This ingredient would increase working memory capacity.4B) For example, the language of Chinese is spoken faster than English due to shorter words. It was studied and found that individuals have better digit spans (larger working memory capacity) in Chinese (speaking fast) than in English.4C) Baddeley’s model structure of the phonological loop and the articulatory rehearsal mechanism explains this effect. His working memory model predicts a close relationship betweenthe rate at which a person can carry out verbal rehearsal and the number of recalled items (memory span). According to the articulatory rehearsal mechanism, people who use verbal rehearsal very quickly can retain more items in the phonological store than people who use verbal rehearsal more slowly. 5A) The rotation heuristic distorts cognitive maps, because tilted figures are rotated to seem straighter. It accounts for this specific error by drawing Liberty and Stadium more horizontal and vertical than they actually are, respectively. Hence, the streets were rotated to create a right-angle bias (tend to think that when 2 roads meet, they usually form a 90-degree angle).5B) The relative-position heuristic distorts cognitive maps, because conceptual knowledge is used to represent the relative position of things. It accounts for this specific error by Dr. Gehring judging Illinois to be east of Iowa, thereby, associating a city in Illinois (Monmouth) to also be east of a city in Iowa (Davenport). In reality, the borders between the states aren’t perfectly only “east” or “west” of each other, but assuming relative positions created this

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