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UB PSC 102 - International Politics

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5. The Cold War, 1945-19906. Post–Cold War, 1991–PresentInternational Politics: Ch. 1 Chapter 0-1 Information: • Some of the key analytical concepts inIR: 1. Anarchy 2. Power 3. Balance of power 4. Institutions • Three main schools of thought in IR: 1. realism 2. liberalism 3. constructivism o Three/Four I’s - Interests: what actorswant to achieve throughpolitical action. - Interactions: the waysin which the choices of two or more actors combine to produce political outcomes. - Institutions: sets of rules, known and shared by the relevant community, that structure political interactions in particular ways. - Information - àThis framework helps analyze: International politics, conflict, trade, finance, human rights, etc. • Levels of Analysis: 1. Domesticà actors trying to shape the states policies & approach. EX: Politicians, Bureaucrats, voters, etc. 2.Internationalà involves representatives from lmfferent states interacting with each other. EX: UN/ WTO 3. Transnationalà involves groups whose membership spans the borders of traotional states. EX: multinational corporations, advocacy networks, and terrorist’s organization. o Time Periods to Remember: 1. Cooperation Through History 2. The Mercantilist Era, 1492–1815 3. The Pax Britannica, 1815–1914 4. The Thirty Years’ Crisis, 1914–1945 5. The Cold War, 1945–1990 6. Post–Cold War, 1991–Present 7. Future Trends and Challenges 1. Cooperation Through History o 1800s: Relative peace and prosperity o Early–mid-1900s: Wars, depression o Late 1900s: Economicglobalization o 2000s: Still uncertain 2. The Mercantilist Era, 1492-1815 o Mercantilism as economic doctrineàestablished monopolies to control trade; manipulative them by favoring mother country. o It was the age of exploration & discovery; Columbus traveling from Spain; Henry the Navigator.o Ex: Spain, Portugal, England, France, and Neverlands i. New technology=Conquest; Colonies= Trade routes+ Rich o During this time all international interactions were dominated by western states. (Maintain political dominance, and gain resources & markets). By the 1700s western European powers were in control of much of the world. o Colonies couldn’t’ control where they send or get goods. Ex: Tobacco was shipped to Britain then the U.S. received the price the British were to pay. o However, Britain provided protection in this policy but colonies were losing money either way. o Competition Results 1618-1648 Thirty Year War: o French & Dutch battling Spain= end of Spain dominates o Peace of Westphalia in 1648= treaty that ended the war. Established principle of states sovereignty. (Hegemony) § This helped resolve religious conflicts, gave birth to modern system of nation-states, do not interfere in the domestic affairs of other states. § Assumption: whoever exercises power within a state’s jurisdiction should encourage moral behavior a part of their subjects. § Thomas Hobbes: Lack of state control over citizens; if you don’t have domestic order life will be brutal. § Principles of Sovereignty include; Territorial integrity, the integrity of national border, supremacy of states as primary decision-maker, and the rule of law within state jurisdiction. 3. Pax Britannica, 1815-1914 (WW1) o Peaceful period (hundred yrs. peace) o British hegemony+ Concert of Europe=peaceful cooperation, trade, migration o The focus on economic andpolitical stability from 1815 to 1870= expansion of free trade and the Industrial Revolution (G. Britain 1st to enter)within the great powers. o By 1870 the rise of new great powers in Germany, Japan, and the United States led to a renewed competition for overseas colonies and increased tension in international relations. o Exchange replaces mercantilism, Free trade gave rise to economic migration. G. Britain changes to a gold standard (currency) i. Gold Standard: major monetary system promoting stability, and predictability. Integrated global finance, reduced barriers= increased trade, investments, and globalization. o Congress of Vienna: served as international institutions, managing political conflicts. o 1817- coercion between weaker states intensifies (Germany, Japan, US arrive at scene a little late) i. Latecomers scramble for colonies=competition. o INTERESTS: Prosperity, Immigration o INTERACTIONS: Cooperation in security and economic affairs o INSTITUTIONS: British hegemony (Gold Standard: British Dominance) and Concert of Europe o 4. The Thirty Years’ Crisis, 1914–1945 o Rising tension= 30 Year Crisis which began with WW1 i. Increasing German power upset the balance between the great power ii. Central powers vs. Allied Powers 1. Central powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire 2. Allied powers: Britain, France, Russia, US, and Japan iii. Many colonies were scared of Germany power increasing. o Cost of war: Economic cost, 13 million dead, central powers were defeated but no actual winners. o WW1= ends peace/prosperity in European Continent and N. America+ Ends with Treaty of Versailles (Reparations, lose lands= Germany) o The League of Nations (LON)=promote collective security + avoid future great-power wars= weak due US not joining. o In 1920-30s= High inflation + Great Depression= Collapse LON + WW2(1939) US v S. Union I. Two camps: Axis powers v Allied Powers i. Axis= Germany, Italy, Japan ii.Allied= US, Britain, S. Union o Results: Deadly than WW1, altered distribution of power, two powers left standing (US, S. Union) o INTERESTS: Security through alliances, expansion, and economic self-sufficiency 2o INTERACTIONS: WW1/WW2 o INSTITUTIONS: The league of Nations 5. The Cold War, 1945-1990 o US v S. Union were competing for support for Third world countries • Eastern Bloc: (Communists; USSR, S. Union) became a part of it due to historical developments by the end of WW2; àS. Union used this block as its sphere of influence by implementing institution I. Military Institution: Warsaw Pact, • Western Bloc: (US, Allies)- NATO (military), GAFTA (Tariffs, World Bank, IMF (Economic), Bretton Wood System (social welfare; freer movement of goods) I. Economic Institutions: Com-Econ: sought to keep bloc together • This period was conflictual; Proxy wars; closest call for war was Cuban Missile Crisis. • 1973-4: Coups; Indirect way to build allies by taking over • 1945-60s: Intense Competition • 1960-69: Peaceful period; decolonization I. à created sovereign nations

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