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UL Lafayette BIOL 110 - BIOL 110 Mid-term Exam Study Questions (1)

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BIOL 110-02 Mid-term Exam Study Questions Assignment50 ptsDue: Friday, September 25th at 11:55 pm- These questions cover material from the Week 1 – Week 6 lectures, all the lecture material that will be covered on the mid-term exam.- These questions do not represent a complete study guide for the mid-term exam. You need to study all the lecture material. These questions will help you identify important topics and get practice with question formats.- These questions will be graded on completion, not accuracy. If you make honest attempts at the questions, you will receive all the points, so please feel free to discuss any questions you are confused about with me.Week 1 – Introduction and Scientific Method1. Name three levels of biological organization that refer to groups of organisms.a. Communityb. Populationc.2. What is an organ?3. What is the difference between a population and a community?a. A population is a group of one type of organismb. A community is a diverse group4. List the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.5. What are the most inclusive and least inclusive levels of taxonomic groups?6. Explain binomial nomenclature and give an example of a scientific name.7. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a scientific theory?8. List the steps of the scientific method in order.Week 2 – Chemical Basis of Life #1 and #21. List the three subatomic particles and give the electrical charge of each.2. Which electron shell can hold more electrons – the 1st shell or the 2nd shell?3. For the element phosphorous, the atomic number is 15 and the atomic mass is 31. How many of the following subatomic particles does phosphorous have?a. Protonsb. Neutronsc. Electrons4. Oxygen has a total of 8 electrons. How many electrons are in the outer electron shell of oxygen?a. Is the outer shell of oxygen full of electrons?5. What is the octet rule?6. What is the difference between a covalent and an ionic bond?7. Are hydrogen bonds stronger or weaker than covalent bonds?8. What type of molecules are hydrophilic?9. What property of water allows water to absorb large amounts of heat without changing temperature?10. Which of the following would be an acid – a substance with a pH of 3 or a pH of 9?11. Do hydrolysis reactions form or break chemical bonds?12. What is the difference between a monosaccharide and a disaccharide?13. List two functions of carbohydrates.a. Structural supportb. Energy storage14. Are lipids hydrophilic or hydrophobic?a. Non-polar and therefore hydrophobic15. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?16. Which part of a phospholipid is hydrophobic?a. The head17. Describe a peptide bond.18. What is the primary structure of proteins?19. What is the tertiary structure of proteins? Is this structure cause by covalent or non-covalent interactions?20. How are the two backbone strands of DNA held together?Week 3 – Cell Structure and Function; Multicellularity and Tissues1. List the 4 basic tissue types, the function of each type and an example of each type.2. What is the extracellular matrix?a. What are the components of the extracellular matrix?3. What type of protein is most common in the extracellular matrix?4. What is the function of Type I collagen?a. Give one location of Type I collagen.5. What are glycosaminoglycans?a. Give an example of a glycosaminoglycan.6. What is the function of anchoring junctions?a. List the types of anchoring junctions and indicate what cell adhesion molecule each type uses.7. Why are tight junctions necessary in the urinary bladder?8. What is the function of gap junctions?a. Give a location of a gap junction.9. List two tenets of cell theory.10. How does the available surface area of the cell membrane affect how large a cell can grow?11. What are the 3 functions of microtubules?12. What is the difference between cilia and flagella?13. List the cell organelles and their function.14. How does the endosymbiosis theory explain the DNA present in mitochondria?15. Describe the structure of the cell (plasma) membrane.16. How does the amount of saturated vs. unsaturated fatty acids affect the cell membrane?Week 4 – Membrane Transport; Energy, Enzymes and Metabolism1. How does the membrane of the cell allow for different environments inside and outside the cell?2. Molecules diffuse down their concentration gradients. What does this mean?a. Does diffusion require energy input?b. When will diffusion of a molecule across a membrane stop?3. For each example, circle the type of molecule that would diffuse across a membrane the fastest.a. Small molecule or large moleculeb. Non-polar (hydrophobic) or polar (hydrophilic) moleculec. Ion (charged) or non-charged molecule4. What is osmosis?5. Why do cells shrink (crenate) if placed in a hypertonic solution?6. If cells are placed in a hypotonic solution, will water move into or out of the cell?7. What is the function of channel proteins in the cell membrane?a. What are three ways channel proteins can be “opened”?8. What is the difference between channel proteins and transporter proteins?9. Why does active transport require an input of energy?10. What is the function of Na+/K+ ATP-ase? (include the ions and charges present inside and outside the cell)a. Does Na+/K+ ATP-ase use active or passive transport?11. How is secondary active transport different from primary active transport?12. What type of transport would be used to take large particles, like bacteria, into the cell?13. What type of energy is present in chemical bonds?14. When energy is converted from one form to another, for example: chemical energy (breaking chemical bonds) to mechanical energy (muscle contraction), most of the that energy is used to do work. What happens to the energy not used to do work?15. If a chemical reaction needs energy to happen, will it occur spontaneously?a. What is the name for this type of reaction?16. What type of reaction can provide energy for the cell to do work – endergonic or exergonic reactions?a. Is the breaking of ATP to release a phosphate endergonic or exergonic?17. Enzymes are types of catalysts. What does this mean?18. Why can only specific substrates bind to specific enzymes (how do enzymes make sure only the correct substrate can bind)?19. In general, do enzymes work faster or slower at higher temperatures?20. What type of metabolic reaction breaks down molecules?21. Do anabolic reactions require energy or release energy?22. How does feedback

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