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CALHOUN MLT:141 MLT Microbiology I - Exam 1 Review Questions

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Exam 1 Review Questions1. The human body is constantly challenged by pathogens in the environment. It is not infected by every pathogen it encounters because the microbial florae: Produce conditions at the microenvironmental level that block colonization 2. A phlebotomist discarded empty blood collection tubes and needles in a biohazard bag. This action is: not acceptable; needles should have been discarded in a puncture proof container 3. Which of the following environmental factors influence the growth of bacteria: all of these (pH, temperature, gaseous composition of the atmosphere) 4. What structure provides the bacterium with its shape, rigidity and resistance to osmotic pressure differences between the environment and the cytoplasm? Cell Wall 5. Which of the following is correct? Staphylococcus (genus) aureus (species) 6. Arrange these taxonomic levels in order from general to specific (family, species, kingdom, genus) Kingdom, family, genus, species7. A biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) level of containment is used for organisms that: Create a moderate potential hazard for employees and the environment 8. The major constituents of the adaptive or specific immunes response are: Lymphocytes 9. One of the most effective defenses bacteria have against phagocytosis is: The capsule 10. A patient is brought to the emergency room with the following symptoms: body temperature of 102F, decreased blood pressure (90/60), an increased WBC count of 2.0 cells/liter, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (a coagulation abnormality). This person has gram negative rods growing in his blood. What is responsible for this condition? Endotoxin 11. Gram stains prepared from patient specimens can be interpreted if the quality control gram stain does not work as expected. False 12. Bacteria the produce leucocidins are considered more pathogenic because they: destroy the host’s white blood cells 13. Capsules serve as a virulence factor because they are: antiphagocytic 14. Factors that determine the pathogenicity and increase the virulence of organisms include all the following except: An organism’s ability to produce infection when host conditions change 15. Which of the following organisms belongs to the kingdom Bacteria? Staphylococcus epidermis, Escherichia coli 16. India ink is an example of a: Negative stain 17. Which is a biochemical process carried out by obligate aerobes? Respiration (or oxidation) 18. Standard precautions apply only to visible blood in bodily fluids. False 19. An iatrogenic infection is one that is: occurs as a result of medical treatment 20. The log phase is the period in which: cell numbers double at a regular pace 21. Cells in a direct smear from a patient specimen, such as white blood cells, squamous epithelial cells, red blood cells and amorphous background debris, should appear what color when stained with the Gram Stain? Pink 22. Bacteria that are spherical in shape are known as: cocci23. A disadvantage of the Acridine Orange stain is: Unable to determine if organisms are living or dead 24. The sophisticated tracking system that allows microbes to find nutrients such as amino acids, sugars, and optimal concentrations of oxygen is known as: chemotaxis 25. Lactophenol cotton blue stain is used for: viewing fungi 26. Laboratories in which work is done with indigenous or exotic agents with a potential for respiratory transmission and that may cause serious and potentially lethal infection belong to which safety level? BSL 327. Gram Positive Bacilli 28. What enables the microbiologist to select the correct media for primary culture and optimize the chance of isolating a pathogenic organism? Understanding the growth requirements of bacteria 29. The first kind of immunoglobulin produced during an infection is: IgM30. Gloves are excellent PPE because they reduce the risk of contamination and prevent sharp instruments from penetrating the skin. False 31. Bacilli 32. The portal of entrance for those organisms causing respiratory diseases such as pneumonia and the common cold is the Nose 33. The smaller the number of microorganisms necessary to cause infection in a competent host, the more ___ the microorganism. Virulent 34. Which component of the cell wall is responsible for the ability of gram-positive organisms to retain the primary stain while gram negative organisms are readily decolorized? Multiple peptidoglycan layers 35. If bacteria ferment various carbohydrates for growth, it is usually detected by: Acid production and change of color from the pH indicator36. When examining a Gram-stained specimen smear, you note the presence of many PMNs (polymorphonuclear leukocytes). They are probably the result of the: Inflammatory response 37. Diagnostic schemes in the microbiology laboratory typically involve which of the following? All of these (determination of the utilization of a variety of substrates as carbon source, characterization of the microscopic morphology, successful isolation of the organism(s) present in the specimen submitted) 38. A microbiology technologist performs a traditional bacterial stain on a colony from a wound culture that is suspected to contain bacteria from the genus Clostridium. The unstained areas inside the bacterial cell observed by the technologist are called: Spores 39. Prokaryotic cells have which of the following structures in their cytoplasm? Ribosomes 40. Which of the following microorganism names is written using proper nomenclature? All of these (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus, S.

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