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UL Lafayette BIOL 110 - BIOL 110 Final Exam Study Questions_PART 2

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BIOL 110-02 Final Exam Study Questions Assignment: PART 225 ptsDue: Friday, November 20th at 11:55 pmPlease submit this assignment as a pdf- These questions cover material from the Week 11 – Week 14 lectures - These questions do not represent a complete study guide for the final exam. You need to study all the lecture material. These questions will help you identify important topics and get practice with question formats.- These questions will be graded on completion, not accuracy. If you make honest attempts at the questions, you will receive all the points, so please feel free to discuss any questions you are confused about with me.WEEK 11 – Asexual and Sexual Reproduction1. List and briefly describe the three methods of asexual reproduction.a. Budding- portion of parent pinches off to form offspringb. Regeneration- a part of parent breaks off and a new child is made from thatc. Parthenogenesis- offspring develops from an undeveloped egg2. What is a zygote?a. A fertilized gamete3. What is a gamete?i. A gamete is sex cell. Offspring is made by fusion of male and female gametesb. Are gametes haploid or diploid?i. diploid4. What type of internal fertilization results in fertilized eggs being laid outside the female’s body?a. oviparity5. Why are testicles suspended away from the body of the male?a. Temperature regulation6. What is cryptorchidism?a. The failure of the balls to descend from the abdominal cavity at around 7 months of development7. What cells in the testicles produce testosterone?a. Interstitial cells8. Where in the testicles is sperm produced?a. In semiferous tubules9. Why can males continue to make sperm throughout their lifetime?i. When a stem cell divides, one part become a stem cell one part becomes a spermb. Can females continue to make oocytes throughout their lifetime? Why or why not?i. No, they are born with all of their available oocytes10. What is the function of the epididymis?a. Sperm go here in preparation for ejaculation. They learn to swim11. What are three functions of accessory sex gland secretions?a. Add volume for better propulsionb. Add fructose as nutrients for spermc. Adds buffers to contradict acidity of vagina12. What is the difference between penile erection and ejaculation?i. Penile erection is under parasympathetic control. Ejaculation is under sympathetic controlb. Which process is under parasympathetic nervous system control?13. What is the function of the acrosome of a sperm?a. Enzyme that helps puncture the egg14. What is the function of luteinizing hormones in males?a. Stimulates sertolic cells to help nourish the sperm.15. In what part of the female reproductive tract are oocytes located?a. ovaries16. Before puberty, all the oocytes in a female are in what stage of meiosis?i. Meiosis 1 in anaphaseb. What happens to the oocytes after puberty begins in the female?i. Several oocytes with complete meiosis I and go onto meiosis 2 where they will pause. At ovulation a oocyte will be released and will finish meiosis 2 if it is fertilized17. What is the function of an ovarian follicle?i. They support the oocyte while they are developing b. What happens to the follicle after ovulation?i. The most developed cell will burst and release secondary oocyte at ovulation. The ruptured follicle then forms a corpus luteum which secrete progesterone. This enzyme prepares the uterine lining for fertlilization18. In what stage of meiosis is the ovulated oocyte?i. Meiosis 2b. What will cause this ovulated oocyte to continue meiosis?i. fertilization19. Where is the most common place in the female reproductive tract for fertilization to occur?a. Uterine tube20. What is the cervix?a. It is the inferior portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina21. Which layer of the uterus is the muscular layer?a. myometrium22. What are the two layers of the endometrium and what is the difference between the layers?a. The stratum functionalis and the basalis functionalisi. The stratum thickens each month and is sloughed if no fertlization23. Where is the vaginal opening (orifice) located?a. In the vestibule24. Fill out the following chart about the hormones involved the female reproductive cycle.Hormone Source FunctionGonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)hypothalamus Causes release of FSH and LH from anterior pituaryFollicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Pituary glands Stimulates growth and developes ovarian follicleLuteinizing Hormone (LH) Pituary glands Causes ovulation by causing the follicle to rupture. Forms corpus luteum which releases progesteroneEstrogen Cells of ovarian follicles prepare uterus for implantation and hormones for further female developmentProgesterone Cells of corpus luteum. Prepare endometrium for possible implantation of ovum25. What causes ovulation, and when does ovulation typically occur?a. Ovulation is caused by a rapid increase of LH. Typically occurs at about 14 days into cycle. In the ovaries26. How does the oocyte prevent being fertilized by multiple sperm?a. Cortical reaction27. What is implantation and when does it occur?a. Implantation is about 8-10 days after fertlization when the blastocyst burrows in the uterine28. What hormone is detected in the urine by home pregnancy tests?i. HGCb. What is the source of this hormone?i. The outer cells of the blastocyst form the placenta which produces HGC29. During what period of fetal development do organs become functional?a. During the fetal periodWEEK 12 – Neuron Structure and Function1. What part of a neuron receives incoming signals from other neurons?a. dendrite2. What is a nerve?a. Bundles of axons surrounded by connective tissue3. What is the difference between the axon hillock and the axon terminal?a. Hillock- where signals are madeb. Terminal- branched end of axon that makes contact with other neurons4. What type of neuron transmits information about the internal and external environment of an organism?a. Sensory neutons5. In a resting cell, is Na+ high or low inside the cell?i. lowb. Is the outside of the cell positive or negative?i. negativec. If Na+ ion channels in the cell membrane are opened, what will happen to Na+ (will it move into the cell, out of the cell, or will there be no movement)?i. Na+ will rush into the cell6. What is a graded potential and how can it lead to an action potential?a. A graded potention is a change in electrical charge at specific locations on dendrites. If it is strong enough to reach axon hillock then an action potential is

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