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UL Lafayette BIOL 110 - BIOL 110 Final Exam Study Questions_PART 1

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BIOL 110-02 Final Exam Study Questions Assignment: PART 125 ptsDue: Friday, October 23rd at 11:55 pmPlease submit this assignment as a pdf- These questions cover material from the Week 8 – Week 10 lectures - These questions do not represent a complete study guide for the final exam. You need to study all the lecture material. These questions will help you identify important topics and get practice with question formats.-These questions will be graded on completion, not accuracy. If you make honest attempts at the questions, you will receive all the points, so please feel free to discuss any questions you are confused about with me.WEEK 8 – Nucleic Acids and Chromosomes and DNA Replication1. What are the 4 characteristics a material such as DNA must have to be the genetic material of a cell?a. Informationb. Replicationc. Transmissiond. Variation2. Describe the structure of a nucleotide.i. Sugar rings with phosphate attached to 5’ carbon of the ring. Has one of 4 nitrogenous bases attachedb. What are the 4 nitrogenous bases?i. Which are pyrimidines and which are purines?1. Pyrimidines- cytosine, thymine2. Purine- guanine, adeninec. How do the nitrogenous bases pair together?i. A pyrimidine always pairs with a purine3. Describe how the nucleotides are bonded together to create the DNA backbones and how the two DNAstrands are held together.a. The 3’ carbon of one nucleotide bonds covalently through a phosphate to the 5’ carbon of another nucleotide4. DNA is described as being antiparallel. What does this mean?a. The strands run in opposite direction. They are complementary meaning that the one strand is opposite of the other.5. If one strand of DNA reads: 5’ – AATCGTGGC – 3’, what would the complementary strand be? Be sure to label the 5’ and 3’ endsa. 3’-TTAGCACCG-5’6. What is a nucleosome?a. A nucleosome is the complex of 8 histones with a 147 base pair length of DNA wrapped around it7. What is a chromatin fiber?a. A chromatin fiber is the “beaded” structure of multiple nucleosomes attached to each other8. What is a chromosome?i. A chromosome is the most compact form of DNA. A chromosome is a chromatin fiber folded and spiral on top of each other to form a condensed set of DNAb. How is a chromosome different from chromatin?i. A chromosome is made of chromatin fibersc. When are chromosomes present and visible in the cell?i. Chromosomes are only visible in the cell when it is about to divide9. What is the difference between euchromatin and heterochromatin?i. Euchromatin- area of DNA where active genes are (transcriptionally active chromatin)ii. Heterochromatin- area of DNA where inactive genes are located (transcriptionally silent chromatine)b. Would you expect a gene that is being used by a cell to be found as euchromatin or heterochromatin?i. euchromatin10. What are sister chromatids? a. A sister chromatide is an exact copy of the replicated DNA11. What do the terms haploid and diploid mean?i. Diploid- cells have two sets of chromosomes in each cellii. Haploid- cell has only one copy of chromosomeb. Is a liver cell haploid or diploid?i. diploidc. Is a sperm cell haploid or diploid?i. haploid12. What does semiconservative replication of DNA mean?a. Each new DNA has one parent strand and one daughter strand13. What is the first step in the replication of DNA?a. Unwinding the DNA strand14. What is the function of the following molecules?a. DNA helicase- unwinds DNA strand by breaking hydrogen bonds between base pairsb. DNA topoisomerase- prevents DNA from getting too tightly wound ahead of replication forkc. Single strand binding proteins- binds to base pairs to prevent them from reforming double helixd. DNA Polymerase III- enzyme that makes new strand. Can only start from 3’ ende. DNA Polymerase I- removes RNA primers and fills in with DNAf. DNA Primase- gives DNA polymerase a 3’ end to start. Primer is made of RNAg. DNA ligase- joins fragments of DNA in lagging strand and inbetween primers and the strand15. Can DNA Polymerase make a new strand of DNA from scratch (with no existing DNA strand already present)? Why or why not?a. No because it needs complementary base pairing to form the new strand16. Why is DNA primase needed to begin construction of a new DNA strand?a. DNA polymerase III can only start polymerasing on a 3’ end17. Explain why the two new strands of DNA can not be constructed in the same way – why is there a leading strand and a lagging strand?a. The leading strand is made continuously with one primer because the polymerase can start withthe 3’ end of the primer and work its way down to the end of the DNA strand (the 5’ end of the parent strand)b. The lagging strand must be made in chunks because the parent strand runs in the 5’ to 3’ direction away from the replication fork. Since DNA polymerase can only run off a 3’ end multiple primers must be placed and then the DNA polymerase can run in chunks off the primers18. Why are multiple primers needed to create the lagging strand of DNA?a. Multiple primers are needed to give DNA polymerase a 3’ end to run off of19. After DNA replication, why does the end of the lagging strand template not get copied?a. After the primer gets removed there is not a 3’ end for polymerase to replicate from20. How do telomeres protect the genes at the ends of DNA?a. Telomeres are repeating nucleotides that to not code for any gene. Since a little bit of the DNA must be clipped off each time it replicates, it does not matter if the telomers get cut off.21. What is the function of the enzyme telomerase?i. The enzyme telomerase lengthens the telomeres,, the cell can replicate more timesb. What type of cells have telomerase?i. Stem cells and cancer cells22. What are three reasons for the high accuracy of DNA replication?a. Physics of base pairingb. Dna polymerase is less likely to catalyze a bond between mismatched pairsc. DNA polymerase proofreads the dNA strandWEEK 9 – DNA Transcription and Translation1. What is transcription?a. Copying a genes DNA sequence to make a RNA molecule2. What is translation?a. The process of translating mRNA into an amino acid chain3. What happens during the initiation phase of transcription?i. DNA polymerase binds DNA at specific gene and unwinds the DNA strand and creates a complementary strandb. What is a promoter?i. It is the area that the DNA polymerase must start at and the DNA polymerase ends at the terminator area.4. During transcription,


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