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UF EDF 3110 - Exam 3 Study Guide

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EDF3110—Exam 3 Study GuideChapter 13- Telomeres and shorteningo Telomere = DNA at the ends of chromosomes The safeguard the stability of cells and they shorten as cells duplicate When they become below critical length, they no longer divide and become senescent Can also contribute to earlier mortality, age-related disease, and loss of function since cells can no longer duplicateo Normal “Wear and Tear” and Aging Genes Longevity id hereditary Gray Hair and Wrinkles- T Cells, B Cells & Antigens—what does what?o Cross Linkage Theory Tissue becomes less elastic over timeo Gradual failure of the endocrine system Gradual drop in hormone growth is associated with less muscle and bone mass, addition of body fat, thinning of skin, decline in CV systemo Deterioration in immune system functiono Diet and physical activity can limit aspects of agingo Immune system declines after age 20 Shrinking Thymus: reduced maturity and differentiation of T-Cells B-Cells rely on T-Cells to function Stress weakens the immune response (Psychological and Physical) - Relationship between physical activity and mental healtho Physical activity reduces anxiety and depression and improves mood, alertness, and energyo EEG and MRI evidence indicates that exercise enhances neural activity in the cerebral cortex, and it improves overall cognitive functioningo Strengthen immunity to diseaseo Promotes on-the-job productivity, self-esteem, ability to cope with stress, and life satisfaction - Relationship between SES and education and health in the US o Compared with many other industrialized nations, U.S. has higher death rates for all causes in early adulthoodo SES Disparities Reflect Mortality Rate Income, education, occupational status Health-related habits Poor health in childhood, Child SES Higher poverty rates Lack of universal health insurance Greater inequalities in health-related environmental factors - EX: Housing, pollution, education, community serviceso Leading Causes of Death between 25 and 44 Age in U.S. Unintentional Injury Cancer is more prevalent for women and heart disease is more prevalent in men- Causes of death—most preventable?o Unintentional Injuryo Cancero Heart Diseaseo Suicideo Homicide- Sex lives of American Adultso At the end of the teenage years, 70% of Americans have had sexual intercourse and by 25, nearly ALL have done soo Contemporary adults display a wider range of sexual choices and lifestyles Non-marital experiences Cohabitation Marriage Orientation toward a heterosexual or same-sex partnero College years are marked by an increase in uncommitted sexual encounters like “hookups” and “friends-with-benefits” These encounters often have negative reactions and negative emotional consequences including lower self-esteem, regret, and depressed moodo Sexual frequency predicts life satisfaction only in the context of a satisfying relationshipo Sexual Difficulties Women - Not being able to orgasm or lack of interest in sex Men- Climaxing too soon- Anxious about performance Biological Factors- Chronic illness such as diabetes or atherosclerosis or use of certain drugs Low SES and Psychological Stresso Majority of Americans support civil liberties and equal employment opportunities for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals - Sexual Coercion—who does it happen to? Perpetrators are…? Victims are…? o Sexual coercion crosses SES and ethnic lines, and people of all walks of life are offenders and victimso About 45% of women have experienced forms of sexual coercion and the majority of victims were victimized before age 25o Highly prevalent on college campuseso Women are vulnerable to acquaintances and strangers, although in most instances their abusers are men they know wello Men who commit acts of coercion tend to be more manipulative than others, lack empathy and remorse, pursue casual sexual relationships rather than emotional intimacy, approve of violence against women, and accept rape myths “Women want to be raped” View friendliness as seduction, assertiveness as hostility, and resistance as desireo Sexual abuse in childhood, promiscuity in adolescence, and alcohol abuse in adulthood are associated with sexual coerciono Approximately HALF of all sexual assaults take place while people are intoxicatedo Cultural Forces Playing a Role in Coercion Men are taught from a young age to be dominant, competitive, and aggressive and women to be submissive and cooperative, the themes of rape are reinforced Social acceptance of violence sets the stage for rape- Stress—Young adults & Older Adults o Intense and persistent stress disrupts the brain’s ability to manage stress, with long-term consequenceso Young Adults more often report depressive symptoms than middle-aged people Helping young adults establish and maintain satisfying, caring, social ties is as important as health interventiono Older Adults are better than young adults at coping with stress More life experience and security with their lifeo Stress interferes with immune system functioning- Different types of thinking—dualistic, relativistic, etc. o Dualistic Thinking (Right vs. Wrong) Dividing information, values, and authority into right and wrong, good and bad, we and they Approach learning by accepting what they are giveno Relativistic Thinking (No Absolute Truth) Viewing all knowledge as embedded in a framework of thought Aware of the diversity of opinions on many topics, they gave up the possibility of absolute truth, in favor of multiple truths, each relative to itscontext Thinking becomes more flexible and tolerant  Leads to the realization that one’s own beliefs are often subjective because several frameworks may satisfy the criterion of internal logical consistency Acutely aware that each person creates their own “truth” Most mature individuals progress to commitment within relativisticthinkingo Piaget Postformal Thought Personal effort and social experiences combine to spark increasingly rational, flexible, and practical ways of thinking that accept uncertaintiesand vary across situationso Perry Epistemic Cognition- Our reflections on how we arrive at facts, beliefs, and ideas (How we get to decisions)- Rethink what we cannot justify (“That doesn’t make sense)- Sign of maturity and rationality (Being able to make decisions based on different perspectives- Contributing

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