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Berkeley BIOLOGY 1A - Chapter 23 Student

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Campbell's Biology, 9e (Reece et al.)Chapter 23 The Evolution of PopulationsConcepts 23.1 and 23.4 are conceptually rich. Consequently, most of the questions in this chapter are delegated to these two concepts. Concept 23.2 deals with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and many of the application/analysis questions in this chapter are connected with Hardy-Weinberg math problems. The series of four scenario/art questions on the sickle-cell allele is new to this chapter.Multiple-Choice Questions1) During an individual organism's lifetime, which of these is most likely to help the organism respond properly to changes in its environment?A) microevolutionB) change in allele or gene frequencyC) change in gene expressionD) change in average heterozygosityTopic: Concept 23.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension2) If, on average, 46% of the loci in a species' gene pool are heterozygous, then the average homozygosity of the species should beA) 23%.B) 46%.C) 54%.D) There is not enough information to say.Topic: Concept 23.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension3) Which of these variables is likely to undergo the largest change in value as the result of a mutation that introduces a brand-new allele into a population's gene pool at a locus that had formerly been fixed?A) average heterozygosityB) nucleotide variabilityC) geographic variabilityD) average number of lociTopic: Concept 23.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension1Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.4) Which statement about the beak size of finches on the island of Daphne Major during prolonged drought is true?A) Each bird evolved a deeper, stronger beak as the drought persisted.B) Each bird's survival was strongly influenced by the depth and strength of its beak as the drought persisted.C) Each bird that survived the drought produced only offspring with deeper, stronger beaks than seen in the previous generation.D) The frequency of the strong-beak alleles increased in each bird as the drought persisted.Topic: Concept 23.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension5) Although each of the following has a better chance of influencing gene frequencies in small populations than in large populations, which one most consistently requires a small population as a precondition for its occurrence?A) mutationB) nonrandom matingC) genetic driftD) natural selectionE) gene flowTopic: Concepts 23.1, 23.3Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension6) In modern terminology, diversity is understood to be a result of genetic variation. Which of the following is a recognized source of variation for evolution?A) mistakes in translation of structural genesB) mistakes in protein foldingC) rampant changes to the dictionary of the genetic codeD) binary fissionE) recombination by crossing over in meiosisTopic: Concept 23.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension7) A trend toward the decrease in the size of plants on the slopes of mountains as altitudes increase is an example ofA) a cline.B) a bottleneck.C) relative fitness.D) genetic drift.E) geographic variation.Topic: Concept 23.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension2Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.8) The higher the proportion of loci that are "fixed" in a population, the lower is that population'sA) nucleotide variability only.B) genetic polyploidy only.C) average heterozygosity only.D) nucleotide variability, average heterozygosity, and genetic polyploidy.E) nucleotide variability and average heterozygosity only.Topic: Concept 23.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension9) Which statement about variation is true?A) All phenotypic variation is the result of genotypic variation.B) All genetic variation produces phenotypic variation.C) All nucleotide variability results in neutral variation.D) All new alleles are the result of nucleotide variability.E) All geographic variation results from the existence of clines.Topic: Concept 23.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension10) Rank the following one-base point mutations (from most likely to least likely) with respect to their likelihood of affecting the structure of the corresponding polypeptide:1. insertion mutation deep within an intron2. substitution mutation at the third position of an exonic codon3. substitution mutation at the second position of an exonic codon4. deletion mutation within the first exon of the geneA) 1, 2, 3, 4B) 4, 3, 2, 1C) 2, 1, 4, 3D) 3, 1, 4, 2E) 2, 3, 1, 4Topic: Concepts 17.7, 23.1Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation11) Most invertebrates have a cluster of ten similar Hox genes, all located on the same chromosome. Most vertebrates have four such clusters of Hox genes, located on four nonhomologous chromosomes. The process that could have potentially contributed to the cluster's presence on more than one chromosome was ________.A) binary fissionB) translationC) gene duplicationD) nondisjunctionE) transcriptionTopic: Concepts 15.4, 23.1Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation3Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.12) Which of the following is a true statement concerning genetic variation?A) It is created by the direct action of natural selection.B) It arises in response to changes in the environment.C) It must be present in a population before natural selection can act upon the population.D) It tends to be reduced by the processes involved when diploid organisms produce gametes.E) A population that has a higher average heterozygosity has less genetic variation than one with a loweraverage heterozygosity.Topic: Concept 23.1Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension13) How many of these statements regarding populations are true?1. Mature males and females of a population can interbreed with each other.2. Populations are sometimes geographically isolated from other populations.3. Biological species are made up of populations.4. Members of a population tend to be genetically more similar to each other than to members of other populations.5. Populations have genomes, but not gene pools.A) Only one of these statements is true.B) Two of these statements are true.C) Three of these statements are true.D) Four of these statements are true.E) All five of these statements are true.Topic: Concept 23.2Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension14) Whenever diploid populations are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at a particular locusA) the allele's frequency should not change from one generation to the next, but its representation in homozygous and heterozygous genotypes may change.B) natural selection, gene flow, and genetic drift are acting equally to change an allele's frequency.C) this means that, at this locus, two alleles are

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