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GSU BIOL 2107K - BIOL ch1 Notes

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Ch. 1 Evolution, the Themes of Biology and Scientific InquiryA hypothesis is a (tentative) answer to a scientific question. It based on a set of observations andcan be tested. In a controlled experiment, the experimental group is compared with the control group.The Independent Variable is the factor being manipulatedThe Dependent Variable is the variable being measured. The results are then analyzed and interpreted Conclusions are then drawn to explain the results and then peer reviews are completed. Afterwards, other scientists and people try to duplicate or dismiss the findings. A Theory is broader than a hypothesis, is more general, it can lead to new hypotheses, and supported by a large body of evidence (thru observations, experiments, and data) in comparison to a hypothesis. Defining LifeLiving things:I. Are comprised of the same chemical elements (Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen)II. Consist of cells (either Unicellular or Multicellular) a. Basic structural and functional unit of all living things b. Come from pre-existing cellsc. Smallest units that perform all vital physiological functionsInquiring About LifeEvolution is the process that has transformed life on Earth.I. Have OrderII. Energy Processing & acquiring foodIII. Growth and DevelopmentIV. Respond to the EnvironmentV. Reproduce VI. Regulation via Homeostasis VII. Evolutionary adaption Natural Selection is the Acquisition of traits that best suit the organism to its environment. Organisms with the traits best suited to the environment will survive and reproduce.I. BiosphereII. Ecosystem III. Biological CommunityIV. PopulationV. Organism VI. Organ or Organ SystemVII. Tissue VIII. CellsIX. Molecules Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotic CellMembrane-enclosed organellesHas a nucleusSimpler and SmallerNo nucleus or other membrane-enclosed organelles.Life’s Processes Involve the Expression and Transmission of Genetic Information.Within every cells nucleus there are structures called chromosomes that contain genetic material in the form of DNA.Each chromosome has one DNA molecule with thousands of genesGenes encode the information needed for building the molecules within the cellDNA controls the development and maintenance of organisms. DNA is structured as two long double helix chains: Deoxyribose sugar and phosphates.Contain chemical building blocks known as nucleotides: Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, and Cytosine. DNA is responsible for making proteins.Life Requires the Transfer and Transformation of Energy and MatterThe input of energy from the sun and the transformation of energy from one form to another make life possibleProducers, Consumers, DecomposersAt the Ecosystem level, each organism interacts continuously with other organisms. Grouping Species: The Basic IdeaTaxonomy: Created by Carl Linnaeus is the branch of biology that names and classifies species into groups.The three domains of life are:I. ArchaeaII. BacteriaIII. EukaryaCharles and the Theory of Natural SelectionCharles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859.Darwin made two main points.1. Species showed evidence of “descent with modification” from common ancestors a. Resulted in “Evolution”2. Natural Selection is the mechanism behind descent with modificationa. Evolution is caused by Natural Selectioni. Is the acquisition of traits that best suit the organism to its environmentii. Organisms with the traits best suited to the environment will reproduceb. Natural Selection results in the adaption of organisms to their environmenti. Organisms become modified over long period of timeii. Any modification that makes an organism more suited to its way of


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