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BIOL1101 Biology

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BIOL1101 Biology Dr. Sibel YILMAZLesson XISubjects: Basic Concepts of EcologyEcology• Ecology is a scientific study that interests withinteractions between organisms and with the physical and chemical environment. • Ecology also help us to understand evolutionaryprocesses.• All evolutionary change takes place in response to ecological interactions that operate on the population, community, ecosystem, biome and biosphere levels.•• Species (individual): Any living organism. Eachspecies have a reproduction barrier with otherspecies.• Population: Individuals of same species that livein a specific area. A population can have varietiesof same species but not have individuals thatbelong different species.• Community: group of different species that livingin the same area.• Ecosystem: Include more than one community of living organisms (biotic) and abiotic environment. • Biome: group of ecosystems (massive ecosystem) • Biosphere: All the ecosystems established on Earth.Ecological factors• Ecological factors cause dynamic change in apopulation/species in certain area.• Divided into two groups: abiotic and biotic.1. Abiotic factors are geological, geographical, hydrological and climatological parameters. Also water, soil, air, light andtemperature.2. Biotic factors interaction between individuals. These can be intraspecific or interspecific.― Intraspecific; interaction between individuals that belong tosame species. Can be either co-operation or competition.― Interspecific; interaction between individuals of differentspecies. Simbiosis life styles can be considered as interspecificrelation.Symbiotic life styles• Symbiosis is relationship involving close physical contact between two organisms that are not themembers of same species. • There are several forms of symbiosis. • According to necessity; ―If organisms require the symbiotic relationship in order to survive, this is known as obligate symbiosis. ―If the symbiotic relationship gives each organism a greater chance of survival but is not compulsory, this is known as facultative symbiosis.• Symbiotic relationships do not have to be symmetrical they can be obligate for one organism and facultative for the other.Symbiotic life styles• According to effect;• Mutualism: both individuals have benefit from theserelationship.Ex; flowers and bees, digestive system bacteria andhuman etc. • Commensalism: one organism benefits and the other is notaffected.Ex; Naucrates ductor (a fish species) and Shark• Parasitism: one organism benefits and the other is harmed. Ex; parasitic tapeworms• Superparasitism: parasites of another parasit.Ex; some fungi.Symbiotic life styles• According to living area; • Endosymbiotes live inside another organism. between or within thecells or within the body tissues.• Ectosymbiotes live on the body of another organism.• Symbiosis is is a small-scale concept interactionbetween individual organisms.• However, there are enormous large-scale symbioses that permeate the entire biosphere and affect all life.• Gas exchange; photosynthetic organisms capture CO2and release O2while others capture O2release CO2.• Nitrogeneus fixation; Some soil bacteria,cyanobacteria, lichens have the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and preserve it in chemical forms that can be used by


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