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BC HUN 1201 - Nutrition Notes

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Nutrition- Nutritiono The science that studies how nutrients & components in foods nourish & affect body functions & healtho Composite science of Biochemistry & Physiology- Nutrientso Compounds in foods that sustain your body processeso These are 6 classes Carbohydrates Fats (Lipids) Protein Vitamins Minerals Water- Energy in Foodo Expressed as Kilocalorieso One kilocalorie = the amount of energy needed toraise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1℃. Carbohydrate & protein provide 4 kcal/g - Fats provide 9 kcal/g- Essential Nutrientso Cannot be prodiced by the bodyo Obained from a source outside of body (eating)o Non-essential nutrients also have important functions in the bodyo A well balanced diet is important in meeting daily nutrient needsFat absorbs flavorMacronutrients*Need in larger portions*Where you get calories from*Provides body with energyMicronutrientsNeed in small portions/quantitiesDo not provide energyNecessary for growth, structure, & to regulate body processesCalories are a measurement of heat- What drives food choices?o Trendso Tasteo Nutrientso Costo Cultureo Time o Nutrition Knowledgeo Habitso Emotiono Advertisingo Social Reasonso Convenience- American Dieto High in: Added sugar, sodium, saturated fat, calorieso Low in: Vitamin D, Calcium, Potassium, Fibero Overweight & obesity on the riseo Lack of healthy diet; due to where we eatHealthy Eating- Key Principleo Balanceo Varietyo Moderation- Undernutritiono State of inadequate nutrition- Overnutritiono Excess nutrients and/or calories in diet- Malnourishmento Malnourished Long-term outcome of consuming a diet that doesn’t meet nutrient needs- Can result from both under- & overnutritiono Diertary Reference Intakes (Nutrient recommendations) EAR (Estimated Average Requirement)- Average daily intake level estimated to meet the needs of ½ the people in a certain group. RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance)- Average daily intake estimated to meet the needs of almost all people in a group (nearly all individuals) AI (Adequate Intake)- Eduacted Guess- Averae daily intake level assumed to be adequate used when EAR cannot be determined. UL (Tolerable Upper Intake Level)- The highest average daily intake level likely to pose no health risk (higher cases toxicity)- Guidance- AMDR (Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range)o Recommended range of intake for energy-containing nutrientso Carbohydrate: 45 to 65 % of daily claoire intakeo Fat: 20 to 35 % of d.c.io Protein: 10 to 35 % of d.c.i- EER (Estimated Energy Requirement)o Amount of daily energy needed to maintain healthy body wiehgt meet nergy needsDRI:*Tells how muchof each nutrient you need to comsume.*Maintain good health.*Prevent chronic diseases.*Avoid unhealthy excesses.o Different approach than RDAs or Aiso Takes into account age, gnder, height, weight, & activity level- MyPlateo Food recommendations based on DRIs & the advice from the Dietary Guidelineso Latest food guidance systemo Emphasizes changes in diet, eating behaviors, physical activity Calories needed are based on age, gender, & activity level. Energy Densityo Promotes proportionality, moderation, variety, & personalization- Food Labels (Daily Values)o Regulated by Food & Drug Administrationo Labels must have: Name of food Net weight of food Name/address of manufacturer or distributer List of ingredients in descending order by weight  Nutrition Facts Panel:- Provides uniform listing of specific nutrients obtained in one serving (sat. fat, trans fat, iron, sodium, Vit. A &C, calcium, total fat, calories, cholesterol, protein)o Daily Values: Based on 2,000 calorie diet Shown in %’s None for trans fat, sugars, & proteino Must be VERY precise and label EXACTLY what is in product.o Ex: 2% reduced fat; fat free, cranberry cocktail- Label Claimso Nutrient Content Claim The amount of nutrients it contains (or doesn’t) Fat free, hih fiber, low saturated fato Health Claim A food or dietary compounf (e.g. fiber) Directly related to a disease/health-related condition associated with the claimo Structure Function Claim Describes how a food affects structure or function in the body E.g. “Milk builds strong bones”Serving size is a standard amount of food that is consumed customarily.- Functional Foodso Have a positive effect on health beyond providing basic nutrientso Ex: Broccoli contains beta-carotene, a phytochemical that proects cells from damaging substances that increase risk of chronic diseases (cancer)o Zoochemicals Compounds in animal food products that benefit health, (Omega 3 fatty acid in fatty fish)o Manufacturerers also fortify food products with phyto- or zoochemicals.- Dietary Guidelines for Americans (General dietary & lifestyle advice)o Reflects the most current nutrition & physical activity recommendationso Set by USDA & Department of Health & Human Serviceso Updated every 5 yearso Allow healthy individuals over age of 2 to maintain good health & prevent chronic disease.o Maintain calorie balanceo Consume more nutrient-rich foods and beverageso Balance calories to manage weight (increase exercise)o Reduce Sodium, saturated fat, trans fat, sugars, refined grains, alcoholo Eat more foods with K+, Ca+, Vit. D, fiber, more fruits, vegertables, grains, fat-freedairy, oils, seafood, lean meatso Build healthy eating patternsCarbohydrates- Carbohydrateo Composed of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen (CHO)o Made up of building blocks called saccharides- Three Monosaccharideso Glucose (Blood sugar)o Fructose (Fruit sugar)o Galactose (Part of milk sugar; doesn’t exist in nature by itself)- Disaccharides (two saccharides joined together)o Maltose (glucose + glucose)o Sucrose (table sugar; glucose + fructose)o Lactose (milk sugar; glucose + galactose)- AS you add more saccharides, the less sweet it becomes- No matter how sweet the monosaccharide is, both monosaccharide & disaccharide hacev the same amount of calories- Smaller the chain, the sweeter the taste- Polysaccharides (Complex xarbohydrates)o Long chains & branches of sugars linked together o Starch  Is the storage form of glucose in plantso Glycogen The storage form of glucose in animals. Stored in liver & muscle cells (only limited amounts) Helps keep blood sugar stable. Once you eat, glycogen is replaced form those used Breaks down when animals, so not accessible for humans- Fibero A nondigestible polysaccharide. Requires both chemical &


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