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KSU COM 1109 - COM 1100 Exam #1 Study Guide

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Human Communications Test #1 ReviewChapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 4 Chapter 12 (part 1)- Components of human communicationo Message creationo Meaning creationo Setting (KEY TERM)o Participants (KEY TERM)o Channels (KEY TERM)o Noise (KEY TERM)o Feedback (KEY TERM)- Construction of the components of human communicationo Message creation (1), Meaning creation (2), Setting (3), Participants (4), Channels (5), Noise (6), Feedback (7)- Models of communicationo The linear modelo The synergetic model (KEY TERM): Two or more people create meaning as they respond. Communication is an ongoing process. Each member is the sender and receiver.o Communication is transactional- Components of the models of communicationo Influenced by: individual forces (personality), societal forces (values, political views), culture (norms), context (who, occasion)- Influences on communication (early and modern)o Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintillian were more ethical than sophistso Cicero = Rome’s finest orator- Methods of research in study of human communicationo Quantitative methods (KEY TERM)convert data to numerical indicators and analyze numbers using statisticso Qualitative methods (KEY TERM)study naturally occurring communication rather than converting data to numberso Content analysis (KEY TERM)focuses on specific aspects of thecontent of a text or group of textso Grounded-theory approach: Effort to build a theory based directly on participants’ experiences and words are often used by interpretivistso Ethnographic (KEY TERM): Relating to studies in which researchers actively engage with participantso Rhetorical analysis (KEY TERM): Used by researchers to examine texts or public speeches as they occur in society with the aim of interpreting textual meaning. Researchers don’t interact with speakers or authorso Textual analysis (KEY TERM): Used to analyze cultural “products” such as media and public speeches- Approaches to study human communication (methods, components, theories)APPROACH Social Science Interpretive CriticalABOUT -Behaviorism of individual-Researchers focus on causality-What factors influence communication behavior-Focus on individual-Humanistic study-Researchers trying to understand and describe individual human communication behavior in specific situations from the perspective of the communicator.-Societal forces as it relates to the individualshift or change behavior-used to change society-Attempts to reveal complexities of culture and the way people actively participate in culture and resist its powerful influences.METHODS -Observation, experiments, surveys, quantitative research-Qualitative, ethnographic, grounded-theory approach-Qualitative and quantitative.-Leads with qualitativeSTRENGHTS -Identify patterns/trends-Predictor-Causality/changing behaviors-In-depth understanding to specific situations and cultures-More content/messages/context-Recognizes and accounts for societal impacts.-Typically studies social media-Considers power-GeneralizationsWEAKNESSES -Limited in scope because the focus is on the individual, not the context or other communities-Generalizations/conclusions-Time (takes a long time)-Doesn’t allow for societalforces-Researcher outside of community they’re researching.-Very broad-Generalizations-Lacking face to face interactiono Multifaceted- Ethos, Pathos, Logoso Ethos (KEY TERM): The rhetorical construction of character (family background attractiveness, athletic ability)o Pathos (KEY TERM): The rhetorical use of emotions to affect audience decision makingo Logos (KEY TERM): The use of rhetoric to help the audience see the rationale for a conclusion- Functions of prejudice- Process of perceptiono Physical, cognitive, and personality characteristics are the categories that individual factors that influence our perceptual processes fall into.- Human communication (KEY TERM)o A Transactional process in which people generate meaning through the exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages in specific contexts, influenced by individual and societal forces and embedded in culture- Perception (KEY TERM)o Refers to process of selection, organization, and interpretation that we use to understand the info we collect through our senses: what we see, hear, taste, smell, and touch.o Selection (KEY TERM): Process of choosing which sensory infoto focus on. Allows us to narrowly focus on stimulio Organization (KEY TERM): Process by which one recognizes what sensory input represents and orders stimuli.  Cognitive representation (KEY TERM): Cognitive mapsconsist of general outlines. Interpersonal scripts (KEY TERM) keep us from making too many social mistakes Categorization: Labeling leads us to view people in 1-D. Stereotyping.o Interpretation (KEY TERM): Act of assigning meaning to sensory info. Frames (KEY TERM) function as lenses that shape how we create meaning and understanding.o Cognitive representation and categorization help people organize and respond to their perceptions- Rhetoric (KEY TERM)o Communication that is used to influence the attitudes or behaviors of others; art of persuasion- Persuasiono Intended to shape someone or their thoughts- Paradigm (KEY TERM)o Belief system that represents a worldview- Encoding (KEY TERM)o Taking ideas and converting them into messages- Decoding (KEY TERM)o Receiving a message and interpreting its meaning- Symbols (KEY TERM)o Something that represents something else and conveys meaning- Prejudice (KEY TERM)o Experiencing aversion or negative feelings towards a group or toward an individual because he or she belongs to a groupo Ego-defensive function (KEY TERM): The role prejudice plays in protecting individuals’ sense of self-wortho Value-expressive function: The role played by prejudice in allowing people to view their own values, norms, and cultural practices as appropriate and correct.- Prototype (KEY TERM)o An idealized schema; the most representative example of a person or concept- Ethics (KEY TERM)o Standards of what is right and wrong, good and bad, moral and immoral- Stereotypes (KEY TERM)o Assumptions that every member of the group possesses certain characteristics- Cognitive complexity (KEY TERM)o The degree to which a person’s constructs are detailed, involved, or numerous- Demand-withdrawalo From social science approach. An interaction pattern in which one partner criticizes or tries to change the other partner, who responds by becoming defensive and then disengaging-either psychologically


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