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EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE: PART 2EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT(CHAPTER 7 PART 1 – OTHER MATERIAL IN CHAPTER 7 NOT COVERED HERE WILL BE ON EXAM 3)Infant & Toddler EmotionsBasic emotions (2-7 months): smiling, laughing, anger, sadness, & fearSecondary emotions (toddlers)Social emotionsGenerosity Empathy EmbarrassmentShame GuiltJealousyPrideSelf-awareness (know what it is and how we find out about it in child development; know when it emerges)Realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body, mind, and actions are separate from those of other people; emerges Between 15 and 24 months Rouge test Shopping cart study Sharing Experiences & EmotionsPointingTalkingBringing thingsAffective sharingSocial Referencing 0-10 months: social communication through face to face interactions (dyadic)10-12 months: beginning of communication about objects (triadic)Response to joint attentionInitiating joint attention Joint attention often paired with affective sharingFacial Expressions: Social ReferencingAs early as 6 months12-13 mos: Ambiguous toy study (mother = smile or neutral)2 years: look to parent after their own appraisalTemperamentThomas & Chess’s (1977) Temperament FrameworkActivityRhythmicityApproach-withdrawalAdaptabilityIntensityThresholdMoodDistractibilityAttention spanChild temperament more recently focused on 3 broad factors:Surgency: activity level/socialnessEmotionality (i.e., mood, irritability)Effortful control: ability to focus; regulate selfAfter 1st year, temperament more stable and predictive of later behaviorGenetic BasisEnvironmental InfluencesPrenatal stress exposure Protectiveness of mothersDaycare placement Development of TemperamentContinue to display more distinct reactivity in 2 and 3rd year Progressive “phases”Example: RegulationBegins as sleeping, eating and orientingBecomes dressing, feeding, following instructionsMeasurement of temperament Lab-tab episodes Spider remote control Gentle arm restraint Basket of toys Temperament OutcomesPersonality: Major temperament characteristics predict personality Adjustment: Implications for adaptive, maladaptive, social, cognitive and psychological development Positive emotionality  social competence Anger/irritability  externalizing problems Academics:High withdrawal and high activity at greater risk for underdeveloped school readiness skills Persistence predicts reading achievement and overall academic competence What is the role of the parent?Goodness of fit: compatibility of a person's temperament with the features of their particular social environmentResponsive parenting vs. rejecting/erraticMatters more for orchids Parent PersonalityThe Big FiveExtraversion Agreeableness ConscientiousnessOpennessEmotional StabilityParent PersonalityPrinzie et al. (2009) Meta-analysis of Big Five Personality Factors and ParentingReviewed Big 5 as relates to 3 key dimensions of parentingWarmth vs. rejection (responsiveness)Behavioral control vs. chaos (structure, supervision, limits)Autonomy support vs. coercion (support exploration, discovery; not overcontrolling or

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