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UCLA PSYCH 137C - Exam1KeyTermsSheet

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137C Key Terms for Midterm Exam*** DISCLAIMER: Below you will find many (but not all!) of the key terms and main ideas from the first half of the class. This is meant to be a general guide to help you study. PLEASE NOTE THAT ANY LECTURE OR BOOK MATERIAL NOT INCLUDED IN THIS SHEET IS STILL FAIRGAME FOR THE MIDTERM. And at the same time, not all of the material below will make it into the midterm. Keep in mind that although some ofthese terms may appear on the exam, it does not mean that they are the correct answers. Good luck studying!!***Chapter 1/Lecture 1: Why study intimate relationships- Interdependenceo Bidirectionality o Five dimensions of interdependence - Personal relationship - Close relationship - Intimate relationship - Why are intimate relationships important?o Contributions to survival of species Fitness  Natural selection o Universality of experience  Pairbonding  Cohabitation o Expansion of emotional experience  Passionate vs companionate love o Effects on mental and physical health  Subjective well-being  Relationship status  Relationship quality  Relationship transitions  Selection effect  Protection effects o Effects on well-being of children o Effects on society Chapter 2/Lectures 2 & 3: Theories of Intimate Relationships- Know the central idea, assumptions, impact on research, and strengths and drawbacks of each of these theories!- Evolutionary perspective on relationships o Sexual selection o Evolved psychological mechanisms o Environment of evolutionary adaptednesso Theory of parental investment o The “Stinky T-shirt” study o Cross-cultural research - Attachment theoryo Attachment figure o Attachment behavior system o Felt security o Working model o Strange situation o Attachment styles (know the four major types  Secure Preoccupied Dismissing Fearful- Social exchange theory o Interdependence theory o Rewards and costs o Material vs social rewardso Opportunity costso Formulas for relationship outcome, satisfaction, dependency, commitmento Subjective probability o Comparison level o Dependence o Comparison level for alternatives o Barriers o Investments o Commitment o Implications for the endurance of abusive relationships- Social learning theoryo Dyadic interaction o Coercion theory o Escape conditioning o Negative reciprocity - Social ecological modelo Microsystem o Mesosytemo Macrosystemo ABC-X Modelo Stressoro Resourceso Interpretation of an evento Crisiso Double ABC-X Modelo Stress pile-up: defined aboveo Lifespan studiesChapter 3/Lecture 4: Methods of Relationship Science- Relationship science - Scientific method - Theory o Variables o Hypothesis o Falsifiable o Replication - Psychological construct o Operationalization o Construct validity - Self-report o Fixed-response scale o Open-ended question o Qualitative research o Social desirability effect o Omnibus measure o Item-overlap problem - Observational measures o Sentiment override o Physiological response o Home- vs laboratory-based observation o Inter-rater reliability o Reactivity - Multi-method approach - Know the benefits and drawbacks of the primary research designs:- Correlational research o Positive vs negative correlationo Correlation vs causationo Cross-sectional data - Longitudinal research o Daily diary o Experience sampling o Attrition bias o Case of the disappearing curve - Experimental research o Dependent vs independent variables; Control; Random assignmento External validity - Archival research o Content analysis - Sample – representative vs convenience - Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.- Null hypothesis - Statistical analysis- Statistical Significance - Meta-analysis - Confidentiality, Anonymity, Informed consent Chapter 4/Lecture 5: Gender- Sex vs gender- Intersex- Cisgender- Transgender - Primary, secondary, and tertiary sex characteristics- Nature vs nurture as they pertain to sex differences and similaritieso Intrasexual competitiono Social structural theoryo Powero Empathic accuracyo Masculine, feminine, and neutral traits: o Schemas- Gender expression- Androgynous- Measuring gender similarities and differences:o Meta-analysiso d statistic- Based on meta-analyses, can look at how genders compare in terms of:o Relationship awarenesso Interaction qualityo Meaning of intimacyo Sexual and physical intimacyo Response to relationship dissolution - Explaining Gender Similarities and Differences: Evolutionary viewChapter 5: Sexual Orientationo Sexual orientationo 5 Strands of Sexual Orientation: Romantic Attraction Sexual Arousal  Sexual Attraction Sexual Behavior Sexual identity o Sexual Fluidity o Asexualityo Gender Nonconformityo Avoiding the trap of heteronormativityo Stigma and Prejudice o Internalized homonegativity Chapter 6/Lecture 7: Personality and personal history- Personality o Trait approach to personality o Big Five personality traits (think O.C.E.A.N.) o Neuroticism; negative affectivity o Impulse control – for whom does it matter? o Dependency regulation model  Self-esteem - Family of origin o Intergenerational transmission effects o Effects of caregiver conflict and divorce on future relationships o Attachment behavior system  Effect of a secure vs insecure style on relationship behaviorChapter 7/Lecture 6: Attraction and mate selection- Attraction - The reward theory of liking - Personality and likingo Pratfall effect o Similarity  Phantom other technique  Complementarity o Familiarity  Mere exposure effecto Reciprocity - Romantic attraction - Sexual attraction - Matching phenomenon- Strategic pluralism - Sexual strategies theory - Misattribution of arousal - Unrequited love - Stalking - Physical attraction – when is it most influential? - Mate selection o Speed dating – do initial preferences determine actual desirability? - Proximity - Proceptivity - Behavioral synchrony - Social penetration theory - Disclosure reciprocity - Stage theories of relationship development o Initiating, experimenting, intensifying, and integrating o Final step of


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