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PSY 201: Mind and Brain Study Guide: EXAM 1 Textbook: Psyhological Science, 6th ed. Chapters 1,2,3,5 AND additional materials from lessons and assignments in modules for weeks 1 through 4 (you will not be tested on materials marked (optional). NOTE:This is a list of important terms and concepts that are relevant to the final exam. Remember, while lecture material and readings have some overlap, they are not replications of each other; some lecture material is not covered in the readings and vice versa. You are expected to be familiar with ALL concepts discussed in class and in the focus readings. In general, you should use what we covered in class to guide your readings in the relevant sections of textbook chapters. While this is fairly comprehensive, remember that the questions on the exam will NOT be based exclusively on this subset of terms and you are responsible for all readings and lecture materials (including concepts from online labs and other online activities and explorations). The exam will consist of 50 Multiple Choice type Questions. Terms/Concepts which you should know (organized by topic): Introduction and History of Psychology: 1. Themes of Psychology 2. Levels of analysis in psychology 3. Origin of Psychological science – Structuralism; Functionalism; Gestalt Psychology; Behaviorism; Cognitive Psychology Research Methods: 4. Goals of science 5. Cause and effect 6. Research cycle – hypothesis, theory,… 7. Types of studies – differences between them - experimental, correlational, descriptive 8. Designing an Experiment- steps, variables 9. data collection/measurement methods: self-report, behavioral, physiological 10. Properties of good data; kinds of errors 11. statistical methods: descriptive and inferential statistics 12. central tendency: mean, median, or mode 13. variability: range, standard deviation 14. correlation coefficient 15. confounding variables and controls 16. bias – subject, experimenter and selection 17. placebo effect Brain—Neural Function & Communication 18. neurons, glia, myelin sheaths 19. parts of a neuron: cell body, dendrites, axon, synapse, terminal button, synaptic cleft, 20. synaptic vesicles, neurotransmitters, examples of NTs and their actions. 21. reflex circuit: sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons 22. Nerve impulse/action potential – how does it work? 23. membrane potential, resting membrane potential, threshold membrane potential 24. ion channels – contribution to action potential and post-synaptic potential 25. pre-synaptic, post-synaptic neurons- properties of specialized structures (components) responsible for synaptic transmission 26. synaptic transmission, excitatory and inhibitory post synaptic potentials (EPSPs & IPSPs) 27. firing rate- coding stimulus intensity 28. events ending neurotransmission or neurotransmitter influence 29. neurotransmitters – different in different types of circuits; example neurotransmitters & their functions 30. Neuromodulators 31. neural-basis of drug action – agonists and antagonists, example drugs Brain—Organization of the nervous system: 32. Organization of the nervous system -Central NS, Peripheral NS, Autonomic NS, Somatic NS 33. Cerebral Lobes: occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal 34. cerebral cortex, gray matter, white matter 35. Features of cortical organization: functional specialization, topographic organization, contra-lateral connections, and asymmetry of higher functions (i.e. hemispheric specialization) 36. primary sensory areas, primary motor area, association areas, frontal areas 37. features of topographic maps: they are distorted and plastic; cortical magnification factor 38. Corpus Callosum 39. Split brain patients: class and lab materialsSensation and Perception: 41. Sensation vs. perception 42. Psychophysics- methods, psychophysical function, psychophysical judgments 43. Detection, Discrimination, Scaling. 44. Psychophysical judgments: Thresholds, Weber’s law 45. Signal detection theory – hits, misses, correct rejections, false alarms, bias- liberal and conservative responders. 46. Visual search – feature and conjunction searches – response times, distractor effects. 47. Perceptual cycle- role of each step (knowledge & attention too!) 48. Top-down vs. Bottom-up processing, context and knowledge. 49. Senses (in general terms): vision, hearing, touch, taste, smell, balance ("vestibular" sense), limb position and movement ("kinesthesis"), temperature, and pain. 50. Receptors – types, properties of receptors: Transduction, coding of stimulus quality and quantity, properties of sensory systems: receptive fields, topographical organization, adaptation, threshold, sensory neurons, sensory areas in the cortex, representational maps/cortical magnification. Visual Perception: 51. Visual stimulus: light, properties 52. The eye: structure, retina, fovea, blindspot 53. Photoreceptors: rods, cones, their properties 54. Retinal circuits: vertical and horizontal connections for contrast enhancement and edge detection. 55. “Lateral inhibition” (e.g. Hermann grid) – contrast enhancement. Afterimages 56. Higher processing in the cortex – processing streams past V1. 57. Visual pathways - 2 “streams” of processing in primate visual cortex: Dorsal/“what” pathway (to the temporal lobe) & Ventral/“where” pathway (to the parietal lobe) 58. Effects of attention, context, and integration in higher visual processing 59. Visual Agnosias (as discussed in modules) Perception of Color, Objects, Depth & Motion 60. Color perception: trichromatic theory – 3 cones 60. Opponent processes – R/G, Blue/Y, Black/W 61. Object form perception – feature integration and form perception in the brain (ventral stream, IT modules 62. Gestalt principles/grouping principles 63. Heuristics – best guesses based on context and experience. 64. Depth perception: monocular (pictoral) cues, binocular cues, movement related cues and movement of eyes (convergence) 65. Size perception – size-distance scaling and size constancy 66. Misapplied scaling – illusions (Ponzo, Muller-Lyer) 67. Motion perception – when eyes move, when eyes don’t move. 68. Motion perception in the brain – rod system, specialized areas/modules in dorsal stream - MT(direction of motion), MST(complex motion/optic flow perception), STS(Biological


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