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First Law and the second law

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First Law and the second law Entropy not on the test1st -conservationExo and endo2nd- once energy is used the useful energy goes downChemical reactions- reactants and products Compare the energyReactants have more energy than the product, exergonic. The hump that you have at the traverse is the activation energyProduct have more energy than the reactant, then it is endergonic, you didn’t release energy, you stored itIn order to stay alive there are a lot of endergonic, uphill processes, how to get them to run is by having coupled reactions; how do you get something to go uphill you have to couple it with something going downhill, which is coupled reactions How do you make sure to drive an endergonic reaction? You couple them to exergonicHow do I get the energy from where I released it to where I need it in the endergonic? I go to energy carriers Carriers – covalent energy bond ATPThe energy is between the last two phosphatesWent from di to tri. Other species of carriers : electron carriersNADPH is the electron carrier for PhotosynthysisNADH and FADH are the carriers for cellular respiration NADPH- making glucose, photosynthysis, To breaking it down nadh and fadhCatalyst- biological catalyst is an enzyme, what defines a catalyst, they lower the activation energy, they are not part of the reaction they are neither a reactant nor a product, they just speed up a reaction by lowering the activation energy. Once you define the enzyme what kind of molecule is it? A protein, it has to maintain its tertiary structure. The active site must be maintained. What binds to the active site? Substrate. Another word forsubstrate? The reactants that your quickly turning into the productRegulate the enzymes, up and down, on and off:The last piece before you brokedown photosynthesis, make glucose and broke it down: Enyzme RegulationOperonEnd product inhibition, another way to say it is negative feedback The product regulates its own production it regulates the enzyme Competitive or allosteric Making glucose and breaking it down, in the chloroplast Photo – thylakoid reactant, light dependentSynthesis- Stroma, light independent making glucose, you DON’T need light Thylakoid Make light usefulCome out of the light dependent:ATP : Photo system 2 proceeds and feeds into photo system 1 NADPH: Photo System 1 Both are going to the stroma OxygenHow do I get replacement electrons for Photo System 1? From Photo System 2 How do I get replacement electrons for Photo System 2? Water, that’s why you give off OxygenStroma:ATP NADPH CO2The first Step is Carbon fixation, CO2 What do you start and end the cycle with? 5 carbon, but its got two phosphates, ribulose disphosphateYou cannot just go from 5 to 6, it breaks upHow many carbons at a time do I use to make glucose? 3, The Calvin or C3 cycle.If you know your making glucose in the stroma, its light independent, know the 3 things you need 2 of them are easy because they just came from the thylakoid, ATP and NADPH and what’s my Carbon SourceCO2, what the first step called? Carbon Fixation, I try to go from a 5 carbon to a 6, so I start with ribulose diphosphate, Can I do it? Can I go from a 5 carbon to a 6? No, that’s why we use 3 Carbon at a time, breaks up that’s what I gotta use. After we make it we now have to break it down, remember there are 3 processes, what processes always begins the break down of glucose? Glycolysis under anaerobic conditions, where is it accomplished? The cytosol. Because its anaroebic, you don’t use anything. Mitochondria is only used when there’s oxygen like in Cellular Respiration. End product of Glycolysis: Pyruvate, Pyruvic Acid. What dictates the fate of Pyruvate? Whether there’s oxygen or not. How do handle Pyruvate if its anaroebic conditions? Fermentation. What kind of fermentation do we under go as mammals? Lactic Acid, or why muscles acc it’s because of the build up of lactic acid. What about Champgene? Microbes? What type of fermentation? Alcohol. CO2 the bubble that tickle the nose.What happens to Pyruvate if there is Oxygen? Cellular Respiration. Why is respiration so valuable? Because you get to break more bonds, so you release more energy. Two regions in the mitochondria, the matrix and the inner membrane. The idea is to break more bonds. Matrix reaction or the other name is Krebs cycle, Citric Acid Cycle, breaking more bonds.The 4 things that come out of the matrix:CO2ATPNADHFADHWhy is the inner membrane so critical? It’s the electron Transport. How many ATP come out of the Electron Transport? 34 and who do you need to run the electron transport? Oxygen. Who do we need to get rid of the low energy electrons? Oxygen, that’s why its called the final electron acceptor at the inner membrane. First half of testMolecular Genetics, DNAFirst Step, Experiments that are Proving the importance of DNA is the genetic material.Bacterial Transformation, one bacterium can pick up DNA from another bacterium and change the function, it went from being innocuous to lethal. Pretty big jump. Hershey Chase or the Bacteria Phage, they used it because they had to pick out the protein and the DNA of a virus. They were determining what was the virus using to take over your cell. What did they do to finally prove DNA? One used Radioactive Phosphorus, the other group used sulfur but that’s only found in protein. Which set bacteria became radioactive? Those exposed to the radioactive phosphorous. Next Step: StructureSame amount of adenine Thymine as the same amount of Guanine Cytosine.Purine with a pyrimidine, complimentary bases. Double Helix: twisted ladder. How many strands? 2. Whats the make up of the strands? Nucleotides, the strand is a nucleic acid. Whats the 3 parts of a nucleotide? 5 carbon Sugar, Phosphate group and the nitrogen base. What do the uprights of the ladder represent? The 2 sugar phosphate backbones of the strands. What are the steps of the ladder? Complimentary Bases. What stabilizes the double helix and forms? Hydrogen bonds. Apply Structure to 2 key functions1st is replicationReplication name; semi conservative, how much of the original strand is conserved? Half. Word for half, semi. Semi conservative replication take the two parents separate them and each of them act as a template using complementary bases, one chromosome becomes 2 chromatids. Use the original strands as a template to lay down the daughter strand. Whose my primary replication enzyme? DNA polymerase, making a new polymer of


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