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NAU BIO 435C - Essay_Question_Exam_2

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Kristina SimonovicBIO435C04-22-2018Exam 2 Essay QuestionThree processes remain common to each of the major transitions in evolution. The first process states that individuals give up their ability to reproduce independently, and they join together to form a larger grouping that shares reproduction. The second process states that once individuals aggregate into higher-level groupings, they can take advantage of economies ofscales and efficiencies of specialization. The third process states that aggregation and specialization facilitate changes in information technologies. Organisms develop new and increasingly efficient ways to acquire, process, transmit, and store information. The three processes can be applied to the emergence of eukaryotic cells. Endosymbiosis occurred when bacterial species capable of energy production and photosynthesis began residing within cells of another species. The bacterial species provided the host cell with essential resources such as energy and food, while the host cell in turn, provided the bacterial species with protection from various dangers in the environment. The mutualistic relationship between the host cell and the bacterial species became so strong that itdeveloped into an obligate mutualistic relationship. Through this relationship, the bacterial species evolved into eukaryotic organelles, mitochondria and chloroplasts, and were no longer able to live on their own. This is an example of the first process, formerly independent units merge and the process creates a new unit with shared reproductive fate. Mitochondria and chloroplasts could only exist within eukaryotic cells and reproduce with the cell. Additionally,this is an example of the second process, individuals that aggregate into higher-level groupings take advantage of efficiencies of specialization. The evolution of eukaryotic organelles brought about a division of labor within the cell. Chloroplasts specialized in converting light to chemical energy that the cell could use. Mitochondria specialized in converting complex organic molecules into more immediate useful sources of chemical energy. The third process is exemplified through the evolution of the eukaryotic nuclear genetic information. The fusion between an ancient bacterium and an ancient archaeal cell created the eukaryotic nuclear genome. The genetic information contained within the eukaryotic nucleus is double-stranded DNA, compared to single-stranded RNA of prokaryotic cells. A double stranded molecule is morestable because it better helps to protect the genetic code from damage. In addition, DNA is self-replicating, while RNA is not. Further, the presence of RNA is essential in the functioning of DNA. Transcription is the process of copying DNA to RNA. Translation is the process by which RNA is used to synthesize proteins. With the advancement of DNA from RNA, the nuclear genome of eukaryotic cells developed new and increasingly efficient ways to acquire, process, transmit, and store information. The emergence of eukaryotes demonstrates all three processescommon to the major transition in

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