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Kristina SimonovicANT101Susan Smiley 15 July 2018Essay 1Evolution is defined as, “the change in allele frequency in the population over time,” (Moore 2008). The Theory of Evolution explains how new species originate and create diversity of life on Earth. Charles Darwin believed that, “all living creatures, including humans, descendedfrom a common ancestor” (Isn’t Evolution just a Theory? 2001). Natural selection is the explanation for why evolution occurs. Over time, nature selects for specific traits that have caused the fittest to survive and reproduce, passing those traits on to future generations. According to Dr. Smiley, “Evolution is simply change in genetic material from one generation to the next as a population of living things -- plants, animals, or people respond and adapt to a changing environment” (Smiley 2018). The greater the species diversity, the more stable the environment.In the podcast “What is Evolution?”, Zach Moore states, “Evolution is both a fact and a theory” (Moore 2008). People often have a misunderstanding of what a theory is. A theory is not a guess. A theory shouldn’t be taken lightly. Other very important theories include the Theory of General Relativity, Quantum Theory, Plate Tectonics, and many others. In the video, “What is a Theory?”, Eugenie Scott states, “A theory explains laws and facts” (What is a Theory? 2005). Evolution is a fact because it can be seen at an observable rate in species that reproduce quickly. According to Kenneth Miller, “The fact that we need a new flu shot every year exemplifies the fact that the flu evolves year to year” (Colbert 2006).Natural Selection still has an effect on humans today. According to Nina Jablonski’s Ted Talk, “As people migrated from Africa to the northern hemisphere and lost exposure to UVB radiation, there was natural selection for the evolution of lightly pigmented skin.” (Jablonski 2009). Jablonski went on to say that, “As people with lightly pigmented skin live in high-UV areas and people with darkly pigmented skin live in low-UV areas, it has tremendous consequences for their health” ( Jablonski 2009). As a result, “People with lightly pigmented skinliving in high-UV areas have to be careful about skin cancer and destruction of folate in their bodies and people with darkly pigmented skin living in low-UV areas tend to be vitamin D deficient from a lack of UVB radiation which causes bone problems and loss of immune function” (Jablonski 2009). Ultimately, “We have, in skin pigmentation, a product of evolution that still has consequences for us today” (Jablonski 2009). Nina Jablonski shows the relationship between skin pigmentation and geographic location in regards to UV radiation exposure. Our skin becomes adapted to the environment in which we reside in, and as we relocate, nature selects for traits to adjust to the new environmental conditions. REFERENCESAMNH 2005a What is a Theory? (Listed under American Museum of Natural History)Colbert 2006 Miller interviewJablonski, N. 2009 Skin color is an Illusion. TED. Retrieved November 1, 2013 from http://www.ted.com/talks/nina _jablonski _breaks_the_illusion_of_skin_color.htmlMoore, Z. 2008a What is Evolution? PBS. 2001b. Isn't Evolution Just a Theory? http://www. pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/11/2/quicktime/e_s_1.htmlSmiley 2018: Unit


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