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Gross Domestic Product

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IntroductionThe management of the waste generated by humans is one of the greatest environmental challengesof the present day. In this activity, you will examine the scatterplot for a number of variables relatedto waste management for 20 countries across the globe. These countries vary in economic status,which is measured here by their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita (in 2013 U.S. dollars).GDP per capita is a measure of the value of all goods and services produced in a country over aperiod of time, divided by the number of people living in that country. Other variables include thefollowing: waste generation per capita, or the average amount of municipal solid waste (MSW)generated annually per person in a country; collection coverage rate, or the percent of total MSWgenerated that is collected; recycling rate, or the percent of total MSW generated that is recycled;and unsound disposal rate, or the percent of total MSW generated that is disposed or burnt incontrolled and uncontrolled dumpsites.1. Discuss: Brainstorm 3–4 ways that poor waste management practices can negativelyaffect the environment or human health.Answer: 1. Uncollected wastes places on the ground will result in unsanitary conditions specially duringthe rainy season2. Polluted water flowing from waste dumps and disposal sites can cause serious pollution forthe surface water and the surrounding environment.3. Flies and mosquitoes breed in some constituents of solid wastes, flies and rats are veryeffective vectors that spread disease.4. Burning waste on the disposal sites can cause major air pollution, affect the climate, causerespiratory diseases.Part 1:Begin by opening the Waste Management Guided Data Exploration entitled “Global WasteManagement” and locating the graph that allows you to examine the variables related to wastemanagement mentioned above. Begin by plotting GDP per capita against waste generation percapita. Note that each point on the scatterplot that appears represents a country. Hover over a point toview the country’s name, and examine the color key to see whether the country has a comparativelylow, middle, or high GDP per capita.2. Examine how much waste each country generates in relation to its GDP per capita. List theapproximate amount of waste generated (in kg/year/person) in each of the followingcountries.India 190 kg/year/personChina 220 kg/year/personMexico 330 kg/year/personJapan 355 kg/year/personSweden 460 kg/year/personUnited States 720 kg/year/person3. In a few sentences, describe the relationship that you observe between GDP per capitaand waste generation; speculate on the reasons why this trend occurs.Answer: Waste generation increases as GDP per capita increases. So there is a directrelationship between GDP per capita and waste generation. In developing countries,improvements in economic conditions have changed the living standard and increase the rateof consumption of materials. Subsequently, it causes the generation of large amount of wastegeneration.4. Consider the relationship you just observed between economic development and wastegeneration. As more countries industrialize in the future (and are thus more likely tohave a higher GDP), how will trends in global waste generation likely change?Answer: As more countries industrialize in the future with dramatic rate of economic growthas well as severe environmental problem. This increase puts more pressure on the partiallyexisting waste management infrastructure. As the pace of economic generation accelerated,environmental problems may get be worse due to inadequate growth of urban environmentalinfrastructure. Waste generation has been increasing proportionately with the growth of GDP.The development of technological and advanced society with economic growth may causethe major effect to increase the quantity of municipal solid waste generation. The quantity ofwaste and the proportion of the constituents also vary from season to season and place toplace.5. Looking only at waste generation does not provide the full picture of waste managementin many countries, however. Whether waste is collected and how it is disposed of is alsoimportant. To begin examining this issue, plot GDP per capita against collectioncoverage rate for all of the countries. In a few sentences, describe the relationship thatyou observe between these variables.Answer: By graph it is clear that collection coverage rate is less for EGYPT and highest forAUSTRILIA. Same is the case for GDP. So, it is clear that countries with less GDP will haveto face worst conditions of environment due to waste because their collection coverage rate isless. The countries with highest GDP will face less bad conditions of environment as theirwaste collection coverage rate is more.6. Which country in the group with a low GDP per capita appears to have a particularlyhigh collection coverage rate in comparison to the other countries in that economicgroup?Answer: Pakistan has less GDP but its collection coverage rate is 55%. Indonesia has a littlebit more GDP and its collection coverage rate is 69%. So, we can say that Indonesia has aparticularly high collection coverage rate in comparison to the other countries in thateconomic group.7. Even if the majority of waste generated in a country is collected, it may still be disposed ofimproperly. In order to investigate this, plot collection coverage rate against unsounddisposal rate for all countries. Describe the relationship you observe between collectioncoverage rates and unsound disposal rates; comment on how this trend appears to relate toa country’s level of economic development.Answer: Sweden with highest collection coverage rate has very less unsound disposal rates whileNigeria with middle collection coverage rate has highest unsound disposal rates.It is clear that those countries that have high level of economic development have less unsounddisposal rates while those countries with low economic development have high unsound disposalrates.So there is Inverse relationship occurs between economic development & unsound disposal rates.8. In addition to examining how well countries are able to dispose of their waste, we can lookat how often they are able to reuse waste products to make something new, or


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