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Earth’s climate

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1. Discuss: Various factors can influence the Earth’s climate. Before you begin to examine thedegree of influence that a number of factors have on the Earth’s climate, brainstorm a listof the various human and natural factors that may cause Earth’s climate to change.Answer: The various factors that influence Earth’s climate are given below:1. Volcanic activity2. Solar output 3. Effects of Geography. 4. Surface of the Earth. 5. Climate change over time.6. Carbon Dioxide7. Methane8. Halocarbons9. Gases10. Solar Radiations2. Some people argue that solar radiation, rather than human-caused carbon dioxide (CO2) missions, has had a greater effect on the climate over the past century. In other words, they argue that solar radiation has been a greater positive climate forcing than CO2.Based on the graph, how do the forcings from CO2 and solar radiation compare and which actually is a greater positive climate forcing?Answers: According to the graph “The Effects of a Changing Climate” it is clear that CO2 causes at least 1.68 W/m2 and solar radiations causes’ only o.05 W/m2. So this is concluded that CO2 is greater positive climate forcing.3. Using the simulation, complete the following sentence:- Predicted warming from human-caused forcings is about ____88.66___ times greater than predicted warming from natural forcings.Human causes 2.03 W/m2 while Natural forces causes 0.23. So by formula 2.03−0.232.03∗100=88.66 times.4. If you were given the task of deciding what to do to reduce overall warming, which oneforcing would you focus your efforts on reducing in order to have the largest potentialinfluence and why?Answer: As from the “The Effects of a Changing Climate” it is clear that humans caused forces aremore than the natural forces so according to me we should reduce the human forces in order to getlargest potential influence so we should try to reduce CO2 in order to reduce get the largest potentialinfluence.5. Discuss: Some of the human-caused forcings such as land-use changes, aerosols, andaerosol cloud effects actually cool the climate. Why don’t we simply increase these forcingsin order to mitigate climate change and counterbalance the various positive forcings?Consider what you know about residence time, geographical distribution, and the potentialenvironmental effects of these negative climate forcings.Answer:The combine effects of these human-caused forcings such as land-use changes, aerosols, and aerosolcloud effects is just -0.97 W/m2 which is very low to overcome the hazards caused by the humans. Ifwe increase their uses then they would cause hazards. Some detail of these factors and their effectsare given below. These explains that why we should not increase these forces.1. Aerosols: Oven cleaners, tile cleaners, pesticides, disinfectants, hair sprays, room deodorizers, paints, and furniture polishes are examples of aerosol products.Hazards: Many of the propellants used with aerosol products, such as butane or propane, are flammable and may be explosive.2. Aerosol clouds: Aerosols can influence climate by scattering light and changing Earth’s reflectivity,they can also alter the climate via clouds. On a global scale, these aerosol “indirect effects” typicallywork in opposition to greenhouse gases and cause cooling. However, aerosols are distributed aroundthe planet differently than greenhouse gases, so the effects do not simply cancel each other. Parsingout how clouds—as well as feedback cycles involving clouds—affect regional climate systemsremains a high priority for climatologists.Hazards:a. They can reduce visibility. b. They have important impacts on air quality and human health (e.g. aerosols can cause breathingproblems). C. They serve as nuclei for cloud droplets or ice crystals in ice clouds.3. Land Use Changes: A "greenhouse gas inventory sector that covers emissions and removals ofgreenhouse gases resulting from direct human-induced land use such as settlements and commercialuses, land-use change, and forestry activities.Hazards: a. Changes in land use and land coverage both influence desertification risk.b. Wetlands are very sensitive to land use changes which alter supply and quality of their ecosystemservices.6. Describe the general warming trends that are expected across the scenarios. For example,compare how warming is generally expected to occur by 2100 on the interior of the continents,the coasts of the continents, and the oceans. Note whether one area of the globe is expected towarm more than others regardless of the scenariosAnswer: There is direct relationship between global average surface air temperature and averagesurface air temperature in specific locations. From the graph of “The Effects of a Changing Climate” itis clear that with the increase in global average surface air temperature then the average surface airtemperature in specific locations also increasesThe Top of globe (Arctic Ocean) also some part of Asia is expected to warm more than the others.Pacific Ocean seems to be less hot.The other detail is given below:If global average surface air temperature is +1(ºC) then average surface air temperature in specificlocations would be up to 4(ºC). If global average surface air temperature increases to +1.8 (ºC) thenaverage surface air temperature in specific locations would be up to 7(ºC). If global average surface airtemperature increases to +2.2 (ºC) then average surface air temperature in specific locations would be upto 7(ºC) but at some places it would increases up to 9(ºC). If global average surface air temperatureincreases to +3.7 (ºC) then average surface air temperature in specific locations would be up to 12(ºC) inArctic Ocean.7. In the scenario where the global average surface temperature is expected to rise by an average of 2.2°C by 2100, approximately how much are the interiors of the continents expected to warm?Answer: 9 °C (Mostly 7 °C but at some places it is 9°C)8. Examine the Arctic in the map that displays an average surface temperature increase of3.7°C. How much more than the global average surface temperature change is this specificarea predicted to warm in this scenario?Answer: 12°C9. Discuss: In the previous questions, you examined the differences in global average surfacetemperature increase and the predicted increases for specific areas under different


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