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Chapter 10 summary

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Ch 10 SummaryI have learnt that winds set the surface current into motion as in the case of Gulf Stream. When atmosphere and ocean meets at water surface then from moving air to the water energy is passed through friction, in this way surface water moves. Surfaces of the oceans is dominated by circular-moving current. Within an ocean basin large loops of water are called gyres. Some other factors like gyres also influence the movement of ocean waters, for example, Coriolis effect. Different types of current exists in gyres like North Pacific, North Atlantic, Southern Hemisphereand Indian Ocean currents. I have studied that Cold Currents Increase Aridity. These are not onlyhorizontal movement present but also vertical movement are present. Upwelling is the process bywhich cold water comes on the surface and replace warmer water. I have learned about coastal upwelling which occurs along California, western South America, and West Africa. The vertical component of Deep-ocean circulation causes mixing of deep-water. This vertical component causes denser water to sink.I have learnt that shorelines are dynamic and their topography, geologic makeup, and climate changes from place to place. The boundary where different parts of system meet is called interference. Sediments move toward and away from shoreline due to waves. Different geological processes have make the shoreline complex. Between ocean and atmosphere, the ocean wave travel along interference. They carry energy from storm to far places. Mostly wave isthe source of energy and motion for ocean. Waves travel long distances, for example, the waves generated near Antarctica found near Pacific Ocean basin. As waves passes the water moves in circle and this movement which transfers energy is called circular orbital motion. Waves causes erosion during storms and during normal days no erosion occurs. Sometimes we called beaches as rivers of sand because waves carry large quantity of sand toward beaches. Distribution of energy along shores effected by a process called refraction which is actually the bending of wave.I have learnt that landforms mostly form due to erosion. I have studied different features like wave-cut cliffs, wave-cut platform formed due to erosion. Caves form due to erosion and the place where two caves of opposite side meet is called sea arch and when arch falls and then thereleft only isolated remnant or sea stack. I have studied different depositional features like Spits, Bars, and Tombolo’s. There are different classification of coasts like Emergent coasts which form due to uplifting of area and submergent coasts form when sea level rises but land around subsides. Mostly coastal development occurs along Atlantic and Gulf coasts and Atlantic and Gulf coasts are gently sloping coastal plain. Pacific coast have relatively narrow beaches. Shorelines are not stable because erosion occurs continuously and structure that people build there are always in danger. To protect shorelines from erosion, structures are built called hard stabilization. To protect from losing sand barriers are build called groins. Daily changes occurs inelevation of ocean are called tides. Tides can be occur due to moon gravitational force. Sun also build large tides but as it is far away so its effect is less. There exists three tidal patterns and the patterns are diurnal which shows single tide, semidiurnal which shows two tides and mixed tidalpattern which is similar to semidiurnal but have high height.I have learnt that wind is a source of motion in ocean. Shorelines are not stable and building nearthem are always in danger because there can be occur flood. But as recreation near ocean can be useful for economy as people from different places visits beautiful ocean and in this way state can earn. So there should be proper arrangement of buildings so that people could live without any difficulty but before constructing any building it should be take care that the buildings should be at some safer distance.I have a question for you that what are the steps that should be applied to keep the building safe near the shore


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